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3 VIETNAM ELT DEVELOPMENT SOME CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN YEARS AHEAD The review quickly reflects the progress of ELT via the textbooks and the policy with obstacles in real situation to hinder the government policy. Vietnam has experienced meaningful economic growth and now faces the challenges of developing a skilled workforce with effective English language competent for work.

4 VIETNAM ELT DEVELOPMENT SOME CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN YEARS AHEAD English speaking organisations have actively contributed to the development of a positive environment for ELT in Viet Nam. Viet Nam has to prepare an effective workforce with long term policy. The ELT system should be able to function in the local, national, regional and global integration. These CHALLENGES will certainly become OPPORTUNITIES if we can manage now with sound policy.

5 Before 1975: In the North: English was taught as a weapon for the fight against the US for the reunification of Viet Nam. In the South: English was taught as a means for better jobs, for more earnings, and for overseas studies.

6 After 1975 In the North: English was taught as a means for the reflection of the victories and fights against the US for the reconstruction of newly reunified Viet Nam. In the South: English was taught via textbooks written by Vietnamese teachers in the North. English was considered a weapon for the fight against the US, the invaders, the neo-colonialists, for political purposes and for the history of newly reunified Viet Nam.

7 After 1975 The percentage of foreign languages taught at schools in the South allocated as follows: 70% Russian 20% English 10% French/ Chinese (in special areas). English was regarded as the language for the boat people.

8 After 1975 Later, UNESCO funded programs for English language teachers to further their studies in Australia and the UK. The Soviet Union also offered programs for English language studies at Universities in Moscow.

9 After 1975 In 1980s a new series of textbooks for seven year curriculum English for Grades 6-12 written by the authors from the South of Vietnam. No curriculum to base on to develop the textbooks. Teachers were trained like teaching workers, Ts should follow the models (strictly mechanical practice with central govt s lesson allocation). All lessons should be taught at the same speed due to the lesson allocation for the whole country. Favourite activities were reading out loud promoted with grammar translation method for knowing the language. Big class size (45-50 Ss)

10 After 1975 The three year curriculum Tieng Anh10-12 was developed for Ss who could not continuously learn English from grade 6-9. The series of Tieng Anh textbook was a collection of texts from other sources for communication skills which helped students better developed their skills in learning English at school.

11 After 1975 In s: Teachers trained in Australia and the UK under UNESCO fund came back for ELT development with British English and Australian English. Oxford Dictionaries & products of other publishers appeared. Russian language learners fell down gradually, while English language learners increased rapidly. English books written and translated from the Soviet Union became favourite and popular for English learners in Vietnam as well.

12 Đi mi era = "renovation" In 1989, OSB (Overseas Service Bureau) from Australia came into Vietnam for ELT national workshops, each lasted 3 weeks in 3 regions (North, Centre, South). Thanks to these workshops, English language teachers from university to secondary schools refreshed & enriched their learning and teaching with communicative approach.

13 Đi mi era In 1991, British Council workshops on ELT trainings ran in 3 regions. Communication skills were highly promoted and new techniques were introduced to classroom teaching and learning. From , American ELI supported for ELT workshops with handbooks on communicative methodology and American culture. Each workshop lasted 3 months focussing on applying communicative approach and cultural enrichment. Extra curriculum activities were also highlighted with learning stations.

14 Đi mi era From : Aus AID programs for higher education in Australia with the 10 month and 18 month programs upgraded the human resource by furthering international cooperation. Key people from these programs became leaders in education and other fields for the renovation. Since 1996, BC ran workshops for EL teachers in 3 regions in Vietnam.

15 BAVE – MOET project came in piloted schools under the support of the Citicorp Foundation, this project later known as BAVE (The Business Alliance for Vietnamese Education).

16 This project changed deeply the system of teaching and learning English in Vietnam in terms of management: *new textbooks were written by Vietnamese teachers after training from the States. *American accents and spelling were gradually introduced in the pilot tested secondary schools. * English for Vietnam from grade 6-12 became the key reference for other writers to base on developing their standards and advanced textbooks for current use.

17 BC WORKSHOPS : BC workshops for ELT teachers around Vietnam, no more OSB or ELI workshops. Each lasted 3 weeks with detailed training on using communication techniques for skills development. They were widely acknowledged as the most serious and effective ones by the participants. In 1998, The UK in Vietnam program boosted up the ELT development in secondary schools and in other fields for furthering cooperation.

18 : The ELTTP The ELTTP (English Language Teachers Training Project from the UK) for lower secondary school (LSS) Ts in some selected areas within the 3 centres Ha Long, Hue, and Can Tho for training resources and training books for Ts as handbooks for retraining colleagues at their schools. This project helped widen LSS Ts views on communicative methodology and raised their awareness on using techniques for language lessons and skills lessons.

19 : VTTN (Vietnam s English Teacher and Trainer Network) This has been a most successful project in terms of outreach and impact. This network originated from many workshop programs for English language teachers since New teaching methodologies have been introduced in national & provincial workshops with visiting experts to conduct workshops & the English language newsletter English Now has become part of the teachers life as it is circulated to members & non-members not only around Vietnam.

20 : VTTN (Vietnam s English Teacher and Trainer Network) The network created a big number of able teachers with great enthusiasm, open minds, a willingness to learn new skills and share their skills or teaching techniques with senses of fun. The success of VTTN was brought by participants and trainers in the network with activities to raise awareness of the implications and appropriateness of communicative methodologies.

21 : VTTN From what they learn to their teaching practice, teachers and trainers have enriched their own experiences on practical ideas for their own classroom learning. VTTN workshops have become meaningful events for all stake holders as they can learn and share from each other in varied ways via this network.

22 1996 SEAMEO RETRAC 1996 SEAMEO RETRAC centre was born in Vietnam with ELT training programs of in-service training for EL teachers and officials using English at work. 1999: First joined programs between RETRAC and RELC (Singapore) for ELT diploma in Vietnam to provide basic human resource for innovation in education.

23 Off - shored programs 2000 till now: Australian Victoria University of Technology offshore program built up in Vietnam via MA TESOL/TEFL program with Vietnam universities, then other programmes have been further developed. These programmes provided key persons in many fields from the North to the South of Viet Nam.

24 Text books written in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese : Pilot tested textbooks in English Tieng Anh for grade Four schools in each area piloted with 2 different textbooks, 2 schools in different places with the same kind of text books. The textbooks were later cut out and modified/ streamlined for national use AKA Tieng Anh basic and advanced.

25 Text books written in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese : New textbooks for English differentiated under two titles: basic and advanced. Each graded book before being used required 5 days of teachers training nationally then locally cascaded with communicative skills in class. But the problem of teaching and testing is always a fresh and hot topic due to the skills teaching and the MCQs Tests. Problems caused by teaching all 4 skills as required by the textbook & curriculum, and the graduation exams with testing in MCQs. Teaching and learning serve testing.

26 Books for teachers written by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese : Distance learning programme for LSSTs in the form of continuing self-tutoring with printed materials translated and improvised from ELTTP & VTTN materials created positive effect on personal professional development thanks to the DoETs checking and testing with paper & pen for their awareness.

27 Materials written in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese However, free materials for personal professionalism should be: ready in 3 forms: * printed based for low technology; * CD-rom based for hi technology; * web based for adv. technology. written accordingly and legally to serve the Vietnam innovation in the context of globalisation.

28 Current methods in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese Mechanical teachings can still be seen & found via observations and teaching demonstrations due to the order of the lesson allocation. Owing to the lesson allocation management, Ts often follow a fixed order from their schedule of teaching.

29 Methodologies for Viet Nam by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese Teachers still need to be upgraded with communicative methodologies together with their awareness to change their attitudes. New techniques with old attitude will certainly destroy the innovation, but old techniques with new attitude will certainly help promote innovation.

30 Methodology in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, for Vietnamese Lots of changes for textbooks, but teachers still get confused and it seemed that they are swimming in the sea of the changes. Many have to learn overnight before their lesson to be taught the next day, particularly with Tieng Anh 12 this year. Some teachers said due to the textbooks written by Vietnamese teachers who have never been teaching at schools caused the problems of language level, knowledge level and cultural levels.

31 Learners Problems Students after finishing their learning of these textbooks could not use them at work for basic communication either in a hotel or restaurant. To make them qualified for the job they have to follow private or extra courses for their A, B, C certificates of English, set by MoET.

32 Problems Problems caused by the up side down process: textbook comes out first then curriculum, instead of the curriculum must be first developed then the textbooks. Teachers do not know where to go, how to identify, and what to do with the key language and target skills for their own lesson plans, due to the lack of the subject curriculum.

33 Problems Problems caused by textbooks printed for teachers training while tapes/ CD-roms made after the teachers trainings. Problem caused by textbooks printed for Ts & answer books for Ss to practice.

34 Problems Problem caused by textbooks printed for teachers with teacher s lesson plan reference books: mechanical teaching. Problem caused by textbooks printed for teachers and students with lots of mistakes, and out dated information.

35 Teachers NEEDS Ts need to be supported with open policy for their teaching practice via s at schools, professional newsletters, and regular workshops for their professional development. Ts need to be effectively trained for teaching to help develop students skills and test their skills accordingly, not by MCQs Tests.

36 Teachers NEEDS Multiple Intelligences and Bloom's Taxonomy should be included for teaching and assessment to innovate the education system for varied needs of the society in a global context. Provided these to be included in the innovation, Ts then together with Ss would be facilitated to experience their practical ideas & creativeness with skills development.

37 Teachers NEEDS School heads should be trained to help Ts for a more supportive learning & teaching environment so that Ss can develop at their best. School heads should work with the community to develop partnerships for their positive learning community.

38 Teachers NEEDS MoET should promote the 4A s Approach (Activity Analysis Abstract Application) for all training modules to help ensure participants and trainers professional development with creativeness in their own teaching practice appropriately. A2 A3A4 A1

39 Teachers NEEDS TESOL associations might be set up at local and national levels for Ts professionalism and learning standards. English should not only be taught as a foreign language but also be treated as a second language in places of interest for business and tourism to exploit the learners time and potentials.

40 Learners NEEDS So far, so much time and money have been spent on English centres and private classes for overseas study. Why is there not an intensive program for kids to learn based on their own needs in addition to the current elective program for primary level?

41 Suggestions Textbooks based on the national standard curriculum might be best modified by learners & teachers, and testing should go with what they have learnt, not only via MCQ tests, to promote skills teaching. Ss should be encouraged to send their written questions for their testing, and contribute to the test formats, not only in class but also in their national tests/ exams.

42 Common European Framework Reference (CEFR) should also be used and developed in teaching and learning foreign languages for the sake of the benchmarking of teaching and learning foreign languages in Vietnam current context. Curriculum for students of English language teaching at college and university levels should be upgraded with international standards for English language teachers to teach at schools and private centres.

43 We have prepared the human resource for furthering cooperation to lend international organisations our continued support in the years to come. English should be a second language for those who want to work with and work for such organisations. English should also be included in the program as a second language for the globalisation nowadays.

44 A10 year English project from primary to secondary has been recently developed, but benchmarking for better teachers training, textbooks and curriculum for communication purposes are still hot topics in Viet Nam ELT development. The aims of ELT in Viet Nam in new context should be modified and learning can only become meaningful when learning English means better jobs and better living.

45 Suggestions To achieve these aims, MoET, partners & those involved in English language teaching and learning should be ready to work together for the teachers training, pre-/in-service; The current textbooks must be treated with a new attitude; various textbooks would be written to satisfy the varied learning styles & needs. Ts and learners need the national curriculum for their standards in teaching and learning, from primary to secondary level.

46 A friend of mine, after 3 years working in Vietnam, before he left with fond memories of the people he met, he remarked that it has been great being a witness to Vietnam s continuing development, economically and socially. Many international organisations have played their parts in helping to meet the aspirations of thousands of young Vietnamese during this time. Many others, although far away from Vietnam, still keep on watching with interest in the years ahead as Vietnam s story unfolds.

47 Suggestions We have learnt from the past with all changes in policy, in textbooks with lots of support from international organisations, We overcome the difficulties with problem & solution techniques, However it is high time for us to share our responsibilities in our roles for ELT development in Vietnam to meet the needs of young generations under global contexts.

48 Thank you for your kind attention. Happy Tet & Successful Year 2009!


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