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Reforming Pensions in Europe: The Political Significance of Technicalities Giuliano Bonoli
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 2 | The pension problem European countries have developed extremely successful et generous pension systems Citizen-voters are extremely attached to retirement, early and on good conditions Population ageing makes pensions schemes increasingly costly Cuts in the generosity of pensions will generate opposition and may result in electoral punishment
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 3 | Retrenchment (Pierson 1994, 1998) In an ageing democracy, it is politically impossible to retrench pensions in a transparent way Retrenchment can occur, but through policy by stealth Four strategies : Obfuscation Division Side payments Delay Pierson, P. (1994) Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and the Politics of Retrenchment, Cambridge University Press. Pierson, P. (1996) The New Politics of the Welfare State. World Politics, 48,
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 4 | What alternatives to policy by stealth? People are likely to accept cuts in pensions if: They will not affect them They are not visible But also if: They are perceived as inevitable They are spread in a fair way
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 5 | Minimizing the number of affected people through long phasing in periods Sometimes reform are introduced through very long phasing in periods These can dramatically reduce the number of voters affected by a reform Delay can be seen as a divisive strategy
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 6 | Year of reform, full implementation date and time lag in France, Germany and Italy Year of reformFull implementation Time lag France France Germany Germany ca.26 ca. Germany200420???? Germany Italy Italy Bonoli, G. & Palier, B. (2007) When Past Reforms Open New Opportunities. Social Policy and Administration, 41.
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 7 | Proportion of the voting age population affected by reform, depending on phasing in period, 2001 Length of phasing in/country FranceGermanyItaly 10 years58%74%55% 20 years40%47%38% 30 years21%27%19% 40 years4%10%3% Bonoli, G. & Palier, B. (2007) When Past Reforms Open New Opportunities. Social Policy and Administration, 41.
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 8 | Low visibility reform Modifying indexation mechanisms Indexation of benefits Indexation of reference salary Changing elements of the pension formula Changing the system completely, so that it is extremely difficult to compare pre and post reform conditions on an individual level
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 9 | Reducing pension entitlements in a fair way Intergenerational equity Robert Musgrave: the relative positions of the elderly and of the working population must not change as a result of population aging. Pension levels and contribution rates must be adjusted accordingly. Use of sustainability or equilibrium factors Myles, J. & Pierson, P. (2001) The Comparative Political Economy of Pension Reform. IN Pierson, P. (Ed.) The New Politics of the Welfare State. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 10 | Intragenerational equity Italy: reductions in some peaks of generosity, privileges More redistribution (minimum pension guarantees) Advantages for workers with physically demanding jobs (travaux pénibles, lavori usuranti)
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 11 | Cuts are perceived as inevitable Contested demographic and pension scheme budget projections Matter of defining (future) reality Automatic government mechanisms may help
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 12 | Automatic government mechanisms in pension reform Indexation Conditional indexation (Netherlands, Switzerland) Demographic factors (e.g. in NDC systems) Adjustment /sustainability factors Weaver, K. (1986) Automatic government. The politics of indexation, Washington, D.C., Brookings.
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 13 | Pension optimists among working age individuals (percentage answering the items underlined) Year (survey)QuestionFranceGermany (west) Italy 1992 (EB37.1)Do you think that the pensions you will receive when you retire will be… Completely adequate/Just about adequate/Somewhat inadequate/Very inadequate (EB 51.1)In the future there will be more elderly than there are now. Do you think that people will get less pension for their contributions? Yes/No/Dont know (EB 56.1)Do you think that the state pension you will receive when you retire will allow you to get by…With great difficulty/with difficulty/easily/very easily Source: Eurobarometer surveys
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 14 | Financial liabilities of life insurance companies, in million EUR (assets for D and CH)
| ©IDHEAP – || Diapositive 15 | What will continental European pension systems in look like? Germany: replacement rate of social insurance pensions = 46% Italy: replacement rate for new pensioner = 49% At the same time, funded provision is expected to expand substantially Convergence towards a multipillar model? What about inequality?
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