Presentation on theme: "The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009"— Presentation transcript:
1The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009 MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY REPUBLIC OF INDONESIALOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY INITIATIVES TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PROBLEM IN INDONESIAPresented by:Dr. MoedjionoIn:The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt15-18 November, 2009
2Indonesia’s Unique Characteristics Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East Asia, have a total area of 9.8 million square kilometers, of which 81% is sea. It is the world’s largest archipelagic country comprising of 5 main islands and 30 small islands and over 17,000 islands, of which a third are inhabited.The country is divided into 33 provinces, 268 regencies, 73 municipalities, 4,044 subdistricts and 69,065 villages. The population of the country projected at 230 millions, the fourth most populous country in the world, with uneven distribution, unbalanced regional development.The culture is very diversified with more than 520 ethnic groups and 746 local languages, of which 737 are indigenous languages [IDC 2006].The country has more rural than urban areas with urban teledensity of 11-25%, rural density 0.2%, around 38,471 villages (62.3% from 69,065 villages) without phones.
320 mother-languages in the world with more than 50 million speakers [Comrie 2003] Ranked 13th
4100 mother-languages in the world with > 50 million speakers, 1-20 ranked (in million speakers) [Grimes 1996]:Chinese Mandarin (885) English (322) Spanish (266) Bengali (189) Hindi (182) Portuguese (170) Russian (170) Japanese (125) German (98) Chinese Wu (77.175) Javanese ( ) Ranked 11th Korean (75) French (72) Vietnamese (66.897) Telugu (66.350) Chinese Yue (66) Marathi (64.783) Tamil (63.075) Turkish (59) Urdu (56.584)Javanese is ranked 13th in the world, or if we uses the newest data, it is ranked 11th in the world.
5LANGUAGES IN INDONESIA There are 6000 languages in the world [Crystal 1987] and are grouped into 17 language-family [Comrie 2003]:Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Caucasian, Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, Koisan, Eskimo-Aleut, Na-dene, Amerind, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetian, Austric, Papuan, Australian Aboriginal.Around 50% of the languages is in Asia-Oceania region, and 12% of the world-languages is in Indonesia.Indonesia has 726 local languages [SIL 2001], 2nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world after Papua Niugini which has 867 languages.
6The local languages are not distributed evenly in Indonesia The local languages are not distributed evenly in Indonesia. The total languages are increasing from west to east, but the total inhabitants are increasing from east to west.
7In Indonesia, there are at least 13 biggest local languages with at least one million speakers [Crystal 1987]Javanese (75,200,000) Sundanese (27,000,000) Malay (20,000,000)Madurese (13,694,000) Minangkabau (6,500,000) Batak (5,150,000)Buginese (4,000,000) Balinese (3,800,000) Acehnese (3,000,000)Sasak (2,100,000) Makassarese (1,600,000) Lampung (1,500,000)Rejang (1,000,000)
8The 13 biggest local languages are still debatable, because Malay language has not been comprehensively handled, as there are many language variations hidden in several names, e.g. [Summer Institute of Linguistics - SIL 2001]:Ancalong Kutai, Bacan, Bayat, Banjar, Basemah, Batin, Bengkulu, Benkulan, Betawi, Bintuhan, Bukit, Dawas, Jambi, Kaur, Kayu Agung, Kelingi, Kerinci, Kincai, Kubu, Kupang, Lako, Lalang, Lematang, Lemantang, Lembak, Linggau, Lintang, Loncong, Lubu, Melayu Ambon, Melayu Bali Loloan, Banjar, Berau, Bukit, Melayu Deli, Melayu Jakarta, Melayu Jambi, Melayu Kupang, Melayu Kutai, Melayu Maluku, Melayu Manado, Merau, Minang, Minahasa, Palembang, Tenggarong, Ternate, Meratus, Minangkabau, Mokomoko, Mukomuko, Musi, Ogan, Orang Laut, Padang, Palembang, Pasemah, Penasak, Penesak, Ranau, Rawas, Ridan, Semendo, Serawai, Serawi, Sindang Kelingi, Suku Batin, Supat, Tenggarong, Tenggarong Kutai, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Ulu, and Ulu Lako.The Malay language variations also appears in several countries. If all Malay language variations are combined, it may be the biggest mother-language in the world.
9There are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, which can become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages.The local language will be sustainable, if they have at least 1000 speakers. The local language that have 500 or less speakers are seriously endangered language. There are 169 local languages as seriously endangered language in Indonesia.The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because the languages will extinct if we damage the habitat of the speakers culture as well.
1085% Indonesian still using Local languages as daily languages in the community mother languages [Lauder 2006]National/Indonesian Language is used in: administrative officials, schools, sciences, & mass media. 84,87% can speak Indonesian [Alwi 2000]10 local languages have their own local script: Balinese, Javanese, Sundanese, Buginese/Makassarese, Karo, Mandailing, Lampung, Rejang, Toba, and Kerinci [Sugono 2001]8 National & Local languages used in the Internet: Indonesian, Acehnese, Balinese, Buginese, Javanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, & Sundanese [Hammam 2006]
11INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES English, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, German, French, Japanese, etc.English is one of a number of foreign languages which have been in use for sometime or which are coming to be taught. Widely used in range of fields such as politics, diplomacy, international trade and industry, commerce, science and technology, education, media, information technology, and popular culture.Arabic has long been learned in connection with the Islamic faith, for religious purposes, especially for Qur’anic recitation and prayers.Chinese has been used widely in Chinese town - business center.An educated people (multilingual people) - at least have to master 3 languages, i.e., local language as individual development, Indonesian as media to get along in national activities, & English as media for adopting the sciences, positive culture for national interest and to get along in International activities.
12Multilingualism Issue in the Internet Since its early days, the Internet has been a predominantly English-speaking medium – approximately 80% of web content.This situation has prompted many countries to take concerted action in promoting multilingualism and in protecting cultural - language diversity.The promotion of multilingualism is not only a cultural issue, but it is directly related to the need for further development of the Internet, to be used by wider parts of society, content must be accessible in more languages “Localization” - “Multilingualism” – “New IDN ccTLD/gTLD”- “UNL (Universal Networking Language) System” by UNDL Foundation Geneva
13LOCAL & CROSS-BORDER LANGUAGES IN INTERNET Note:Cross-Boarder Languages in Indonesia:English, Arabic, Chinese, French,German, Dutch, Japanese, etc.
14ICT INFRASTRUCTURESTelephone lines : 30.3 million (fixed) and million (mobile).Public phones : 382,000 units.Internet penetration : 2.8 million subscriber and 30 million users.Internet Kiosks : 261,000.Internet Exchanges (IX) : 3.Internet users per 100 population : 3.76.Computers penetration : 2,519,000.Computers per 100 population : 1.19.Internet host computers : 62,036.Internet host computers per 100 population : 0.03.Total International bandwith (Mbps) : 573 Mbps.Bits per inhabitant : 2.7.Internet access cost (20 hours/month) in US$: 22.26ISP : 140 licenses, 35 operational.Radio Broadcasting : 1,400 stations (nation-wide & local).TV Broadcasting : 10 nation-wide networks.Pay TV : 4 TV cables, 2 DBS TV.
15- The prediction of bandwidth consumption, internet users and computer population, based on the study by the Palapa Ring Team [Postel 2006], are as follows:= Bandwith Consumption ,000,000 Kbps 78,067,335 Kbps= Internet Users (Fair) ,252, ,518,890Internet Users (Optimist) 17,247, ,524,659= PC Population (Fair) ,541, ,086,370PC Population (Optimist) 8,304, ,622,758ICT PC Hardware market: =1,106,940; 2007=1,257,531ICT Software Developers Population: 2006=621,000; 2007=682,000- Total IT market in Indonesia for 2007: will reach US$1.9 billion with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 9.5% from 2002 to 2007 (source: IDC).- The Indonesian ICT vision is “To establish a global competitive Indonesian Knowledge-Based Society based on national values and cultures”.
16Growth Projection of the Indonesian Infocom Services Fixed PhoneInternet UserMobile PhoneBroadband UserSource: Business Monitor International and Internal
17Palapa Ring Project Kalimantan Sulawesi Sumatera Maluku - Papua Jawa to Perth, Australiato Asia Pacificto IndiaSabangto ThailandKalimantanSulawesiBanda AcehMeulabohо= New Network= Existing Network= Landing PointоMedanTarakanTapaktuanоTobeloоSingkawangоToli-toliSibolgaоTernateoBatamоManadoGorontaloоoоPadangоооSamarindaManokwariNatalPontianakоParigiBiakооBalikpapanPaluоооoSarmiPalembangSorongBengkuluооPalopooоooJayapuraBelitungоFakfakоSampitoKendarioJakartaBanjarmasinооTimikaCirebonMakassarKolakaAmbonKaliandaоSemarangoоBulukumbaoooоSurabayaооMaumereooRabaoооEndeoоoооооSaumlakiSumateraоKetapangKalabahiMeraukeMataramoоAtambuaWaingapuKupangMaluku - PapuaJawaSumbawaNusa Tenggara1. Sumatra km2. Jawa km3. Kalimantan km4. Sulawesi km5. Maluku km6. Nusatenggara 3480 km7. Papua km8. Connecting Line 2063 kmTotal backbone network kmCost US$17
18Backbone Domestic - Trans Microwave (operated by Telkom) LEGEND :SKKLSKSO NR & SR JAWA - BALIGMD JAWA-BALI, CROSS KALIMANTAN, NUSA TENGGARA & TRANS SULAWESISKSO RA-IV SUMATRAGMD RA-IV SUMATRABATAS NEGARAGMD PARMO SULAWESIGMD TSM-1 SUMATRAGMD TSM-2 SUMATRAGMD XSUM SUMATRASKSO HPBB SUMATRASKKL TISBNALSMMDNTARSULAWESIMOSUMATERAPBRSKNTTMALUKUPTKKALIMANTANSMRGTOBPDMWBIAJBPALLWKSONPDPLKBPPSMIPSOBJMSNNJAPPGBNBTATJNFFGKRSNABPREKDILTONMETABIRIAN JAYAGBLBDLJKTJAWAUPCBNBOOPKLSMBMASBBDPWTMNGBJRPGLLRTKAIYKSLOMTRBJWMRKMLBWIDPRRTGENDMMEATBKEFSOENUSA TENGGARAKP
19Backbone Domestic – Satellite (operated by Telkom) Palapa C2Telkom-1Palapa B4TELKOM-2/24XpdrTELKOM-3/48XpdrYear 2008BNALSMMDNTARSULAWESIMOSUMATERAPBRMALUKUSKNTTPTKKALIMANTANSMRGTOBPDMWBIAJBPALLWKSONPDPLKBPPSMIPSOSNNPGBJMJAPBNBTATJNFFGKRSNABONPREKDILTMETABGBLIRIAN JAYABDLJAWAUPJKTCBNBOOPKLSMSBBMABDPWTMGBYKSLONJRLRTKAIMTRPGLBJWMRKMLBWIDPRRTGENDMMELEGEND :ATBKEFGMD TSM-2 SUMATRASKSO NR & SR JAWA - BALISOENUSA TENGGARAKPGMD XSUM SUMATRASKKLGMD TSM-1 SUMATRAGMD JAWA-BALI, CROSS KALIMANTAN, NUSA TENGGARA & TRANS SULAWESISKSO HPBB SUMATRAGMD RA-IV SUMATRAGMD PARMO SULAWESISKSO RA-IV SUMATRASKKL TISBATAS NEGARA
20Universal Service Obligations (USO) Programs Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) will be utilized as tools to “attack” the digital divide in Indonesia2.3 GHz will be granted for operator who wins the USO programBWA in USO program will be integrated to existing national backbone and/or soon to be built backbone announced asVillages Ringing – phones for 38,471 villages (out of 69,065)Smart Villages – Internet for all villages
21LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY 1945 Constitution (UUD) - Chapter XV – Paragraph 36: “The national Language of Indonesia is Indonesian”.UU/Law No.2/1989 – National Education.UU/Law No.22/1999 – Local Autonomy.UU/Law No.25/1999 – Financial Balance between Center and Local Government.Government Regulation No.25/2000 – Share Authority between Center and Local Government.Draft Law of Language: the uses/management/development/foster/ maintenance of National/Local and Foreign Languages.Draft Law of Information and Electronic Transaction.Draft Law of Freedom of Information Flow and Access.2008: Language Center of Ministry of National Education will publish Local Language Mapping & Inter-relationship Diagram.Blue-Print/Researh management plan for safety effort of the endangered languages by Language Center of Ministry of National Education.
22RELEVANT GOVERNMENT AGENCIES Ministry of National Education – National Language CenterMinistry of Communication and Information TechnologyMinistry of Research and Technology – Technology Development and Implementation AgencyMinistry of Culture and TourismUniversities - Department of Language/LiteraryHouse of RepresentativeNational Center for StatisticsMinistry of Social Affairs - Directorate of Isolated TribesThe Summer Institute of LinguisticsThe National Language OrganizationOther Private Organizations/Foundations – Culture/Language/ Literary/ICT (Software, Hardware, & Services)
23POLICY/PROJECT INITIATIVES The National Language mapping Project by National Language Center: “Research on Cognates & Mapping of Regional Languages in Indonesia”, started for 15 years.Thesaurus/Spelling Checker Project of National/Indonesian Language by University of Indonesia and the team.Javanese Script Project by University of Indonesia and the team.Ford Foundation: Initiative in Local Language Inventory of Local Languages Education and Research in Universities.Universities Video Conferencing Network Project (INHERENT 2006) - connecting 32 Universities/Cities in Indonesia.Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) - connecting 4 Universities in Indonesia (UI-Jakarta, UNRI-Pekanbaru, UDAYANA-Denpasar, UNHAS-Makassar) with 60 countries.Presidential Decree on Underdeveloped Villages.Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia
24Initiative in Local Language Inventory of Local Languages Education and Researchin Universities40 Universities all over IndonesiaThousands of languages research projects> 556 Courses taught
30Universities Video Conference Network in Indonesia (Connecting 32 Cities) 155Mbps(STM-1)8Inherent20062Banda AcehMedanSerangBandungJkt-UIDIKTIJogjaMalangSurabayaSemarangDenpasarBandarLampungBengkuluPontianakPadangPalangkarayaPalembangJambiPekanbaruMakasarPaluManadoSamarindaBanjarmasinGorontaloKendariKupangMataramJayapuraManukwariTernateAmbon1Mbps(Redundant Link)Bandwith:Note:Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) -Connecting 60 countries; Indonesia (UI-Jakarta, UNRI-Pekanbaru, UDAYANA-Denpasar, UNHAS-Makassar)
31ConclusionsIndonesia is 2nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world, which has more than 700 local languages, 10 local languages have their own local scriptsThe policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because there are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, will become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languagesThe promotion of Multilingualism in the Internet using local languages is needed for information to be accesible by everyone, anywhere, at anytime, by anydevice - to build the Information Society target in 2015Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia
32REFERENCES[Alwi 2000] Alwi, Hasan and Dendy Sugono Politik Bahasa: Risalah Seminar Politik Bahasa. Pusat Bahasa, Jakarta.[Comrie 2003] Comrie, Bernard et.al The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World. Singapore: Star Standard.[Crystal 2000] Crystal, David Language Death. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.[Grimes 1996] Grimes, Barbara F Ethnologue. Summer Institute of Linguistics.[Hammam 2006] Hammam, Riza et.al Indonesian Languages Diversity on the Internet.[Lauder 2000] Lauder, Multamia RMT Unity and diversity in Indonesia’s Linguistic Heritage. University Indonesia, Jakarta.[Lauder ] Lauder, Multamia RMT Revitalisasi Bahasa Minoritas, Seminar Pelestarian Bahasa Daerah. Direktorat Riset & Pengabdian Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia.[Lauder ] Lauder, Allan The Status and Function of English in Indonesia: A Review of Key Factors. University Indonesia, Jakarta.[SIL 2001] SIL International, Indonesia Branch Languages of Indonesia. Jakarta: SIL International, Indonesia Branch.[Sugono 2001] Sugono, Dendy and Abdul Rozak Zaidan (editor) Bahasa Daerah dan Otonomi Daerah (Local Languages and Local Autonomy). Ministry of National Education.