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LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY INITIATIVES TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PROBLEM IN INDONESIA Presented by: Dr. Moedjiono In: The Best Practice Forum on.

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Presentation on theme: "LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY INITIATIVES TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PROBLEM IN INDONESIA Presented by: Dr. Moedjiono In: The Best Practice Forum on."— Presentation transcript:

1 LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY INITIATIVES TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PROBLEM IN INDONESIA Presented by: Dr. Moedjiono In: The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009 Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt 15-18 November, 2009 MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA 1

2 Indonesias Unique Characteristics Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East Asia, have a total area of 9.8 million square kilometers, of which 81% is sea. It is the worlds largest archipelagic country comprising of 5 main islands and 30 small islands and over 17,000 islands, of which a third are inhabited. Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East Asia, have a total area of 9.8 million square kilometers, of which 81% is sea. It is the worlds largest archipelagic country comprising of 5 main islands and 30 small islands and over 17,000 islands, of which a third are inhabited. The country is divided into 33 provinces, 268 regencies, 73 municipalities, 4,044 subdistricts and 69,065 villages. The population of the country projected at 230 millions, the fourth most populous country in the world, with uneven distribution, unbalanced regional development. The country is divided into 33 provinces, 268 regencies, 73 municipalities, 4,044 subdistricts and 69,065 villages. The population of the country projected at 230 millions, the fourth most populous country in the world, with uneven distribution, unbalanced regional development. The culture is very diversified with more than 520 ethnic groups and 746 local languages, of which 737 are indigenous languages [IDC 2006]. The culture is very diversified with more than 520 ethnic groups and 746 local languages, of which 737 are indigenous languages [IDC 2006]. The country has more rural than urban areas with urban teledensity of 11-25%, rural density 0.2%, around 38,471 villages (62.3% from 69,065 villages) without phones. The country has more rural than urban areas with urban teledensity of 11-25%, rural density 0.2%, around 38,471 villages (62.3% from 69,065 villages) without phones. 2

3 20 mother-languages in the world with more than 50 million speakers [Comrie 2003] Ranked 13th 3

4 100 mother-languages in the world with > 50 million speakers, 1-20 ranked (in million speakers) [Grimes 1996]: 100 mother-languages in the world with > 50 million speakers, 1-20 ranked (in million speakers) [Grimes 1996]: Chinese Mandarin (885) English (322) Spanish (266) Bengali (189) Hindi (182) Portuguese (170) Russian (170) Japanese (125) German (98) Chinese Wu (77.175) Javanese (75.500.800) Ranked 11th Korean (75) French (72) Vietnamese (66.897) Telugu (66.350) Chinese Yue (66) Marathi (64.783) Tamil (63.075) Turkish (59) Urdu (56.584) Chinese Mandarin (885) English (322) Spanish (266) Bengali (189) Hindi (182) Portuguese (170) Russian (170) Japanese (125) German (98) Chinese Wu (77.175) Javanese (75.500.800) Ranked 11th Korean (75) French (72) Vietnamese (66.897) Telugu (66.350) Chinese Yue (66) Marathi (64.783) Tamil (63.075) Turkish (59) Urdu (56.584) Javanese is ranked 13th in the world, or if we uses the newest data, it is ranked 11th in the world. Javanese is ranked 13th in the world, or if we uses the newest data, it is ranked 11th in the world. 4

5 LANGUAGES IN INDONESIA There are 6000 languages in the world [Crystal 1987] and are grouped into 17 language-family [Comrie 2003]: There are 6000 languages in the world [Crystal 1987] and are grouped into 17 language-family [Comrie 2003]: Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Caucasian, Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, Koisan, Eskimo-Aleut, Na-dene, Amerind, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetian, Austric, Papuan, Australian Aboriginal. Around 50% of the languages is in Asia-Oceania region, and 12% of the world-languages is in Indonesia. Around 50% of the languages is in Asia-Oceania region, and 12% of the world-languages is in Indonesia. Indonesia has 726 local languages [SIL 2001], 2 nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world after Papua Niugini which has 867 languages. Indonesia has 726 local languages [SIL 2001], 2 nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world after Papua Niugini which has 867 languages. 5

6 The local languages are not distributed evenly in Indonesia. The total languages are increasing from west to east, but the total inhabitants are increasing from east to west. 6

7 In Indonesia, there are at least 13 biggest local languages with at least one million speakers [Crystal 1987] Javanese (75,200,000) Sundanese (27,000,000) Malay (20,000,000) Madurese (13,694,000) Minangkabau (6,500,000) Batak (5,150,000) Buginese (4,000,000) Balinese (3,800,000) Acehnese (3,000,000) Sasak (2,100,000) Makassarese (1,600,000) Lampung (1,500,000) Rejang (1,000,000) 7

8 The 13 biggest local languages are still debatable, because Malay language has not been comprehensively handled, as there are many language variations hidden in several names, e.g. [Summer Institute of Linguistics - SIL 2001]: The 13 biggest local languages are still debatable, because Malay language has not been comprehensively handled, as there are many language variations hidden in several names, e.g. [Summer Institute of Linguistics - SIL 2001]: Ancalong Kutai, Bacan, Bayat, Banjar, Basemah, Batin, Bengkulu, Benkulan, Betawi, Bintuhan, Bukit, Dawas, Jambi, Kaur, Kayu Agung, Kelingi, Kerinci, Kincai, Kubu, Kupang, Lako, Lalang, Lematang, Lemantang, Lembak, Linggau, Lintang, Loncong, Lubu, Melayu Ambon, Melayu Bali Loloan, Banjar, Berau, Bukit, Melayu Deli, Melayu Jakarta, Melayu Jambi, Melayu Kupang, Melayu Kutai, Melayu Maluku, Melayu Manado, Merau, Minang, Minahasa, Palembang, Tenggarong, Ternate, Meratus, Minangkabau, Mokomoko, Mukomuko, Musi, Ogan, Orang Laut, Padang, Palembang, Pasemah, Penasak, Penesak, Ranau, Rawas, Ridan, Semendo, Serawai, Serawi, Sindang Kelingi, Suku Batin, Supat, Tenggarong, Tenggarong Kutai, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Ulu, and Ulu Lako. Ancalong Kutai, Bacan, Bayat, Banjar, Basemah, Batin, Bengkulu, Benkulan, Betawi, Bintuhan, Bukit, Dawas, Jambi, Kaur, Kayu Agung, Kelingi, Kerinci, Kincai, Kubu, Kupang, Lako, Lalang, Lematang, Lemantang, Lembak, Linggau, Lintang, Loncong, Lubu, Melayu Ambon, Melayu Bali Loloan, Banjar, Berau, Bukit, Melayu Deli, Melayu Jakarta, Melayu Jambi, Melayu Kupang, Melayu Kutai, Melayu Maluku, Melayu Manado, Merau, Minang, Minahasa, Palembang, Tenggarong, Ternate, Meratus, Minangkabau, Mokomoko, Mukomuko, Musi, Ogan, Orang Laut, Padang, Palembang, Pasemah, Penasak, Penesak, Ranau, Rawas, Ridan, Semendo, Serawai, Serawi, Sindang Kelingi, Suku Batin, Supat, Tenggarong, Tenggarong Kutai, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Ulu, and Ulu Lako. The Malay language variations also appears in several countries. If all Malay language variations are combined, it may be the biggest mother-language in the world. The Malay language variations also appears in several countries. If all Malay language variations are combined, it may be the biggest mother-language in the world. 8

9 There are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, which can become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages. There are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, which can become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages. The local language will be sustainable, if they have at least 1000 speakers. The local language that have 500 or less speakers are seriously endangered language. There are 169 local languages as seriously endangered language in Indonesia. The local language will be sustainable, if they have at least 1000 speakers. The local language that have 500 or less speakers are seriously endangered language. There are 169 local languages as seriously endangered language in Indonesia. The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because the languages will extinct if we damage the habitat of the speakers culture as well. The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because the languages will extinct if we damage the habitat of the speakers culture as well. 9

10 85% Indonesian still using Local languages as daily languages in the community mother languages [Lauder 2006] 85% Indonesian still using Local languages as daily languages in the community mother languages [Lauder 2006] National/Indonesian Language is used in: administrative officials, schools, sciences, & mass media. 84,87% can speak Indonesian [Alwi 2000] National/Indonesian Language is used in: administrative officials, schools, sciences, & mass media. 84,87% can speak Indonesian [Alwi 2000] 10 local languages have their own local script: Balinese, Javanese, Sundanese, Buginese/Makassarese, Karo, Mandailing, Lampung, Rejang, Toba, and Kerinci [Sugono 2001] 10 local languages have their own local script: Balinese, Javanese, Sundanese, Buginese/Makassarese, Karo, Mandailing, Lampung, Rejang, Toba, and Kerinci [Sugono 2001] 8 National & Local languages used in the Internet: Indonesian, Acehnese, Balinese, Buginese, Javanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, & Sundanese [Hammam 2006] 8 National & Local languages used in the Internet: Indonesian, Acehnese, Balinese, Buginese, Javanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, & Sundanese [Hammam 2006] 10

11 INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES English, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, German, French, Japanese, etc. English, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, German, French, Japanese, etc. English is one of a number of foreign languages which have been in use for sometime or which are coming to be taught. Widely used in range of fields such as politics, diplomacy, international trade and industry, commerce, science and technology, education, media, information technology, and popular culture. English is one of a number of foreign languages which have been in use for sometime or which are coming to be taught. Widely used in range of fields such as politics, diplomacy, international trade and industry, commerce, science and technology, education, media, information technology, and popular culture. Arabic has long been learned in connection with the Islamic faith, for religious purposes, especially for Quranic recitation and prayers. Arabic has long been learned in connection with the Islamic faith, for religious purposes, especially for Quranic recitation and prayers. Chinese has been used widely in Chinese town - business center. Chinese has been used widely in Chinese town - business center. An educated people (multilingual people) - at least have to master 3 languages, i.e., local language as individual development, Indonesian as media to get along in national activities, & English as media for adopting the sciences, positive culture for national interest and to get along in International activities. An educated people (multilingual people) - at least have to master 3 languages, i.e., local language as individual development, Indonesian as media to get along in national activities, & English as media for adopting the sciences, positive culture for national interest and to get along in International activities. 11

12 Multilingualism Issue in the Internet Since its early days, the Internet has been a predominantly English-speaking medium – approximately 80% of web content. Since its early days, the Internet has been a predominantly English-speaking medium – approximately 80% of web content. This situation has prompted many countries to take concerted action in promoting multilingualism and in protecting cultural - language diversity. This situation has prompted many countries to take concerted action in promoting multilingualism and in protecting cultural - language diversity. The promotion of multilingualism is not only a cultural issue, but it is directly related to the need for further The promotion of multilingualism is not only a cultural issue, but it is directly related to the need for further development of the Internet, to be used by wider parts of society, content must be accessible in more languagesLocalization - Multilingualism – New IDN ccTLD/gTLD- UNL (Universal Networking Language) System by UNDL Foundation Geneva 12

13 LOCAL & CROSS-BORDER LANGUAGES IN INTERNET Note: Cross-Boarder Languages in Indonesia: English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Dutch, Japanese, etc. 13

14 ICT INFRASTRUCTURES Telephone lines : 30.3 million (fixed) and 140.5 million (mobile). Public phones : 382,000 units. Internet penetration : 2.8 million subscriber and 30 million users. Internet Kiosks: 261,000. Internet Exchanges (IX): 3. Internet users per 100 population: 3.76. Computers penetration: 2,519,000. Computers per 100 population : 1.19. Internet host computers: 62,036. Internet host computers per 100 population : 0.03. Total International bandwith (Mbps): 573 Mbps. Bits per inhabitant: 2.7. Internet access cost (20 hours/month) in US$: 22.26 ISP: 140 licenses, 35 operational. Radio Broadcasting: 1,400 stations (nation-wide & local). TV Broadcasting : 10 nation-wide networks. Pay TV: 4 TV cables, 2 DBS TV. 14

15 -The prediction of bandwidth consumption, internet users and computer population, based on the study by the Palapa Ring Team [Postel 2006], are as follows: 2006 2015 = Bandwith Consumption 7,000,000 Kbps78,067,335 Kbps = Internet Users (Fair) 8,252,43716,518,890 Internet Users (Optimist) 17,247,68334,524,659 Internet Users (Optimist) 17,247,68334,524,659 = PC Population (Fair) 2,541,027 5,086,370 PC Population (Optimist) 8,304,32716,622,758 PC Population (Optimist) 8,304,32716,622,758 - ICT PC Hardware market: 2006=1,106,940; 2007=1,257,531 - ICT Software Developers Population: 2006=621,000; 2007=682,000 -Total IT market in Indonesia for 2007: will reach US$1.9 billion with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 9.5% from 2002 to 2007 (source: IDC). -The Indonesian ICT vision is To establish a global competitive Indonesian Knowledge-Based Society based on national values and cultures. 15

16 Growth Projection of the Indonesian Infocom Services Source: Business Monitor International and Internal Fixed Phone Mobile Phone Broadband User Internet User 16

17 Sulawesi Kalimantan о о о о о Banda Aceh Sabang Medan Palembang Jakarta о Cirebon о Semarang о Surabaya о о о Ketapang о о о Sumbawa о о о о о Singkawang о o Sampit Banjarmasin о о о о Balikpapan Samarinda Tarakan о о о о о о о Batam о Toli-toli о о o Sibolga о о Meulaboh Tapaktuan о Natal Padang Bengkulu Kalianda о Belitung o Kalabahi o o o o o Saumlaki o o o Tobelo o Palopo Sumatera Jawa Nusa Tenggara Maluku - Papua Pontianak Atambua to Thailand to Perth, Australia to Asia Pacific to India о o o o o o o Rab a Waingapu End e Kupan g Makassar Bulukumba Kolaka Kendari Ambo n Parigi Palu Gorontal o Manad o Ternate Sorong Fakfak Manokwar i Biak Sarmi Jayapur a Timik a Merauke Maumer e Mataram = New Network = Existing Network = Landing Point 1. Sumatra 7402.5 km 2. Jawa3542 km 3. Kalimantan5345.5 km 4. Sulawesi5813 km 5. Maluku2988 km 6. Nusatenggara3480 km 7. Papua4958 km 8. Connecting Line2063 km Total backbone network 35.280 km Cost US$ 1.524.515.000 Palapa Ring Project 17

18 Backbone Domestic - Trans Microwave (operated by Telkom) LEGEND : SKKL SKSO NR & SR JAWA - BALI GMD JAWA-BALI, CROSS KALIMANTAN, NUSA TENGGARA & TRANS SULAWESI SKSO RA-IV SUMATRA GMD RA-IV SUMATRA BATAS NEGARA GMD PARMO SULAWESI GMD TSM-1 SUMATRA GMD TSM-2 SUMATRA GMD XSUM SUMATRA SKSO HPBB SUMATRA SKKL TIS PGL KALIMANTAN JAWA NUSA TENGGARA IRIAN JAYA SULAWESI MALUKU SUMATERA UP MW BIA SMI JAP FF NAB SON AB MRK TT GTO MO SNN LWK PAL PSO PRE KDI GKRS ON BPP SMR PLK TAR BJM PTK BTA PG TJN LT BDL JB PD MDN LSM BNA JKT CBN SM YK SLO BD PKL PWT SB M N BMA ML JR BWI DPR MTR LRT MME END BJW RTG KEF SOE KP KAI ATB BPD GBL GB PBR SKN BN MET BOO 18

19 LEGEND : SKKL SKSO NR & SR JAWA - BALI GMD JAWA-BALI, CROSS KALIMANTAN, NUSA TENGGARA & TRANS SULAWESI SKSO RA-IV SUMATRA GMD RA-IV SUMATRA BATAS NEGARA GMD PARMO SULAWESI GMD TSM-1 SUMATRA GMD TSM-2 SUMATRA GMD XSUM SUMATRA SKSO HPBB SUMATRA PGL KALIMANTAN JAWA NUSA TENGGARA IRIAN JAYA SULAWESI MALUKU SUMATERA UP MW BIA SMI JAP FF NAB SON AB MRK TT GTO MO SNN LWK PAL PSO PRE KDI GKRS ON BPP SMR PLK TAR BJM PTK BTA PG TJN LT BDL JB PD MDN LSM BNA JKT CBN SM YK SLO BD PKL PWT SB M N BMA ML JR BWI DPR MTR LRT MME END BJW RTG KEF SOE KP KAI ATB BPD GBL GB Telkom-1 Palapa C2 PBR SKN BN MET BOO SKKL TIS Backbone Domestic – Satellite (operated by Telkom) Palapa B4 TELKOM-2/24Xpdr TELKOM-3/48Xpdr Year 2008 19

20 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) will be utilized as tools to attack the digital divide in Indonesia Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) will be utilized as tools to attack the digital divide in Indonesia 2.3 GHz will be granted for operator who wins the USO program 2.3 GHz will be granted for operator who wins the USO program BWA in USO program will be integrated to existing national backbone and/or soon to be built backbone announced as BWA in USO program will be integrated to existing national backbone and/or soon to be built backbone announced as Villages Ringing – phones for 38,471 villages (out of 69,065) Villages Ringing – phones for 38,471 villages (out of 69,065) Smart Villages – Internet for all villages Smart Villages – Internet for all villages Universal Service Obligations (USO) Programs 20

21 LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY 1945 Constitution (UUD) - Chapter XV – Paragraph 36: The national Language of Indonesia is Indonesian. 1945 Constitution (UUD) - Chapter XV – Paragraph 36: The national Language of Indonesia is Indonesian. UU/Law No.2/1989 – National Education. UU/Law No.2/1989 – National Education. UU/Law No.22/1999 – Local Autonomy. UU/Law No.22/1999 – Local Autonomy. UU/Law No.25/1999 – Financial Balance between Center and Local Government. UU/Law No.25/1999 – Financial Balance between Center and Local Government. Government Regulation No.25/2000 – Share Authority between Center and Local Government. Government Regulation No.25/2000 – Share Authority between Center and Local Government. Draft Law of Language: the uses/management/development/foster/ maintenance of National/Local and Foreign Languages. Draft Law of Language: the uses/management/development/foster/ maintenance of National/Local and Foreign Languages. Draft Law of Information and Electronic Transaction. Draft Law of Information and Electronic Transaction. Draft Law of Freedom of Information Flow and Access. Draft Law of Freedom of Information Flow and Access. 2008: Language Center of Ministry of National Education will publish Local Language Mapping & Inter-relationship Diagram. 2008: Language Center of Ministry of National Education will publish Local Language Mapping & Inter-relationship Diagram. Blue-Print/Researh management plan for safety effort of the endangered languages by Language Center of Ministry of National Education. Blue-Print/Researh management plan for safety effort of the endangered languages by Language Center of Ministry of National Education. 21

22 RELEVANT GOVERNMENT AGENCIES Ministry of National Education – National Language Center Ministry of Communication and Information Technology Ministry of Research and Technology – Technology Development and Implementation Agency Ministry of Culture and Tourism Universities - Department of Language/Literary House of Representative National Center for Statistics Ministry of Social Affairs - Directorate of Isolated Tribes The Summer Institute of Linguistics The National Language Organization Other Private Organizations/Foundations – Culture/Language/ Literary/ICT (Software, Hardware, & Services) 22

23 POLICY/PROJECT INITIATIVES The National Language mapping Project by National Language Center: Research on Cognates & Mapping of Regional Languages in Indonesia, started 1992 for 15 years. The National Language mapping Project by National Language Center: Research on Cognates & Mapping of Regional Languages in Indonesia, started 1992 for 15 years. Thesaurus/Spelling Checker Project of National/Indonesian Language by University of Indonesia and the team. Thesaurus/Spelling Checker Project of National/Indonesian Language by University of Indonesia and the team. Javanese Script Project by University of Indonesia and the team. Javanese Script Project by University of Indonesia and the team. Ford Foundation: Initiative in Local Language Inventory of Local Languages Education and Research in Universities. Ford Foundation: Initiative in Local Language Inventory of Local Languages Education and Research in Universities. Universities Video Conferencing Network Project (INHERENT 2006) - connecting 32 Universities/Cities in Indonesia. Universities Video Conferencing Network Project (INHERENT 2006) - connecting 32 Universities/Cities in Indonesia. Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) - connecting 4 Universities in Indonesia ( with 60 countries. Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) - connecting 4 Universities in Indonesia (UI-Jakarta, UNRI-Pekanbaru, UDAYANA-Denpasar, UNHAS- Makassar) with 60 countries. Presidential Decree on Underdeveloped Villages. Presidential Decree on Underdeveloped Villages. Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia 23

24 Initiative in Local Language Inventory of Local Languages Education and Research in Universities 40 Universities all over Indonesia Thousands of languages research projects > 556 Courses taught 24

25 ACEH 25

26 EAST JAVA 26

27 PAPUA 27

28 COURSES TAUGHT IN UNIVERSITIES 28

29 Papers 29

30 Universities Video Conference Network in Indonesia (Connecting 32 Cities) Note: Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) - Connecting 60 countries; Indonesia (UI-Jakarta, UNRI- Pekanbaru, UDAYANA-Denpasar, UNHAS-Makassar) Bandwith: 30

31 Conclusions Indonesia is 2 nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world, which has more than 700 local languages, 10 local languages have their own local scripts Indonesia is 2 nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world, which has more than 700 local languages, 10 local languages have their own local scripts The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because there are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, will become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because there are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, will become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages The promotion of Multilingualism in the Internet using local languages is needed to build the Information Society target in 2015 The promotion of Multilingualism in the Internet using local languages is needed for information to be accesible by everyone, anywhere, at anytime, by anydevice - to build the Information Society target in 2015 Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia 31

32 REFERENCES [Alwi 2000] Alwi, Hasan and Dendy Sugono. 2000. Politik Bahasa: Risalah Seminar Politik Bahasa. Pusat Bahasa, Jakarta. [Comrie 2003] Comrie, Bernard et.al. 2003. The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World. Singapore: Star Standard. [Crystal 2000] Crystal, David. 2000. Language Death. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. [Grimes 1996] Grimes, Barbara F. 1996. Ethnologue. Summer Institute of Linguistics. [Hammam 2006] Hammam, Riza et.al. 2006. Indonesian Languages Diversity on the Internet. [Lauder 2000] Lauder, Multamia RMT. 2000. Unity and diversity in Indonesias Linguistic Heritage. University Indonesia, Jakarta. [Lauder 2006-1] Lauder, Multamia RMT. 2006. Revitalisasi Bahasa Minoritas, Seminar Pelestarian Bahasa Daerah. Direktorat Riset & Pengabdian Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia. [Lauder 2006-2] Lauder, Allan. 2006. The Status and Function of English in Indonesia: A Review of Key Factors. University Indonesia, Jakarta. [SIL 2001] SIL International, Indonesia Branch. 2001. Languages of Indonesia. Jakarta: SIL International, Indonesia Branch. [Sugono 2001] Sugono, Dendy and Abdul Rozak Zaidan (editor). 2001. Bahasa Daerah dan Otonomi Daerah (Local Languages and Local Autonomy). Ministry of National Education. 32

33 THANK YOU 33


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