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The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009

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1 The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009
MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY INITIATIVES TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PROBLEM IN INDONESIA Presented by: Dr. Moedjiono In: The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity – IGF 2009 Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt 15-18 November, 2009

2 Indonesia’s Unique Characteristics
Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East Asia, have a total area of 9.8 million square kilometers, of which 81% is sea. It is the world’s largest archipelagic country comprising of 5 main islands and 30 small islands and over 17,000 islands, of which a third are inhabited. The country is divided into 33 provinces, 268 regencies, 73 municipalities, 4,044 subdistricts and 69,065 villages. The population of the country projected at 230 millions, the fourth most populous country in the world, with uneven distribution, unbalanced regional development. The culture is very diversified with more than 520 ethnic groups and 746 local languages, of which 737 are indigenous languages [IDC 2006]. The country has more rural than urban areas with urban teledensity of 11-25%, rural density 0.2%, around 38,471 villages (62.3% from 69,065 villages) without phones.

3 20 mother-languages in the world with more than 50 million speakers [Comrie 2003]
Ranked 13th

4 100 mother-languages in the world with > 50 million speakers, 1-20 ranked (in million speakers) [Grimes 1996]: Chinese Mandarin (885) English (322) Spanish (266) Bengali (189) Hindi (182) Portuguese (170) Russian (170) Japanese (125) German (98) Chinese Wu (77.175) Javanese ( )  Ranked 11th Korean (75) French (72) Vietnamese (66.897) Telugu (66.350) Chinese Yue (66) Marathi (64.783) Tamil (63.075) Turkish (59) Urdu (56.584) Javanese is ranked 13th in the world, or if we uses the newest data, it is ranked 11th in the world.

5 LANGUAGES IN INDONESIA
There are 6000 languages in the world [Crystal 1987] and are grouped into 17 language-family [Comrie 2003]: Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Caucasian, Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, Koisan, Eskimo-Aleut, Na-dene, Amerind, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetian, Austric, Papuan, Australian Aboriginal. Around 50% of the languages is in Asia-Oceania region, and 12% of the world-languages is in Indonesia. Indonesia has 726 local languages [SIL 2001], 2nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world after Papua Niugini which has 867 languages.

6 The local languages are not distributed evenly in Indonesia
The local languages are not distributed evenly in Indonesia. The total languages are increasing from west to east, but the total inhabitants are increasing from east to west.

7 In Indonesia, there are at least 13 biggest local languages with at least one million speakers [Crystal 1987] Javanese (75,200,000) Sundanese (27,000,000) Malay (20,000,000) Madurese (13,694,000) Minangkabau (6,500,000) Batak (5,150,000) Buginese (4,000,000) Balinese (3,800,000) Acehnese (3,000,000) Sasak (2,100,000) Makassarese (1,600,000) Lampung (1,500,000) Rejang (1,000,000)

8 The 13 biggest local languages are still debatable, because Malay language has not been comprehensively handled, as there are many language variations hidden in several names, e.g. [Summer Institute of Linguistics - SIL 2001]: Ancalong Kutai, Bacan, Bayat, Banjar, Basemah, Batin, Bengkulu, Benkulan, Betawi, Bintuhan, Bukit, Dawas, Jambi, Kaur, Kayu Agung, Kelingi, Kerinci, Kincai, Kubu, Kupang, Lako, Lalang, Lematang, Lemantang, Lembak, Linggau, Lintang, Loncong, Lubu, Melayu Ambon, Melayu Bali Loloan, Banjar, Berau, Bukit, Melayu Deli, Melayu Jakarta, Melayu Jambi, Melayu Kupang, Melayu Kutai, Melayu Maluku, Melayu Manado, Merau, Minang, Minahasa, Palembang, Tenggarong, Ternate, Meratus, Minangkabau, Mokomoko, Mukomuko, Musi, Ogan, Orang Laut, Padang, Palembang, Pasemah, Penasak, Penesak, Ranau, Rawas, Ridan, Semendo, Serawai, Serawi, Sindang Kelingi, Suku Batin, Supat, Tenggarong, Tenggarong Kutai, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Ulu, and Ulu Lako. The Malay language variations also appears in several countries. If all Malay language variations are combined, it may be the biggest mother-language in the world.

9 There are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, which can become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages. The local language will be sustainable, if they have at least 1000 speakers. The local language that have 500 or less speakers are seriously endangered language. There are 169 local languages as seriously endangered language in Indonesia. The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because the languages will extinct if we damage the habitat of the speakers culture as well.

10 85% Indonesian still using Local languages as daily languages in the community  mother languages [Lauder 2006] National/Indonesian Language is used in: administrative officials, schools, sciences, & mass media. 84,87% can speak Indonesian [Alwi 2000] 10 local languages have their own local script: Balinese, Javanese, Sundanese, Buginese/Makassarese, Karo, Mandailing, Lampung, Rejang, Toba, and Kerinci [Sugono 2001] 8 National & Local languages used in the Internet: Indonesian, Acehnese, Balinese, Buginese, Javanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, & Sundanese [Hammam 2006]

11 INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES
English, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, German, French, Japanese, etc. English is one of a number of foreign languages which have been in use for sometime or which are coming to be taught. Widely used in range of fields such as politics, diplomacy, international trade and industry, commerce, science and technology, education, media, information technology, and popular culture. Arabic has long been learned in connection with the Islamic faith, for religious purposes, especially for Qur’anic recitation and prayers. Chinese has been used widely in Chinese town - business center. An educated people (multilingual people) - at least have to master 3 languages, i.e., local language as individual development, Indonesian as media to get along in national activities, & English as media for adopting the sciences, positive culture for national interest and to get along in International activities.

12 Multilingualism Issue in the Internet
Since its early days, the Internet has been a predominantly English-speaking medium – approximately 80% of web content. This situation has prompted many countries to take concerted action in promoting multilingualism and in protecting cultural - language diversity. The promotion of multilingualism is not only a cultural issue, but it is directly related to the need for further development of the Internet, to be used by wider parts of society, content must be accessible in more languages  “Localization” - “Multilingualism” – “New IDN ccTLD/gTLD”- “UNL (Universal Networking Language) System” by UNDL Foundation Geneva

13 LOCAL & CROSS-BORDER LANGUAGES IN INTERNET
Note: Cross-Boarder Languages in Indonesia: English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Dutch, Japanese, etc.

14 ICT INFRASTRUCTURES Telephone lines : 30.3 million (fixed) and million (mobile). Public phones : 382,000 units. Internet penetration : 2.8 million subscriber and 30 million users. Internet Kiosks : 261,000. Internet Exchanges (IX) : 3. Internet users per 100 population : 3.76. Computers penetration : 2,519,000. Computers per 100 population : 1.19. Internet host computers : 62,036. Internet host computers per 100 population : 0.03. Total International bandwith (Mbps) : 573 Mbps. Bits per inhabitant : 2.7. Internet access cost (20 hours/month) in US$: 22.26 ISP : 140 licenses, 35 operational. Radio Broadcasting : 1,400 stations (nation-wide & local). TV Broadcasting : 10 nation-wide networks. Pay TV : 4 TV cables, 2 DBS TV.

15 - The prediction of bandwidth consumption, internet users and computer population, based on the study by the Palapa Ring Team [Postel 2006], are as follows: = Bandwith Consumption ,000,000 Kbps 78,067,335 Kbps = Internet Users (Fair) ,252, ,518,890 Internet Users (Optimist) 17,247, ,524,659 = PC Population (Fair) ,541, ,086,370 PC Population (Optimist) 8,304, ,622,758 ICT PC Hardware market: =1,106,940; 2007=1,257,531 ICT Software Developers Population: 2006=621,000; 2007=682,000 - Total IT market in Indonesia for 2007: will reach US$1.9 billion with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 9.5% from 2002 to 2007 (source: IDC). - The Indonesian ICT vision is “To establish a global competitive Indonesian Knowledge-Based Society based on national values and cultures”.

16 Growth Projection of the Indonesian Infocom Services
Fixed Phone Internet User Mobile Phone Broadband User Source: Business Monitor International and Internal

17 Palapa Ring Project Kalimantan Sulawesi Sumatera Maluku - Papua Jawa
to Perth, Australia to Asia Pacific to India Sabang to Thailand Kalimantan Sulawesi Banda Aceh Meulaboh о = New Network = Existing Network = Landing Point о Medan Tarakan Tapaktuan о Tobelo о Singkawang о Toli-toli Sibolga о Ternate o Batam о Manado Gorontalo о o о Padang о о о Samarinda Manokwari Natal Pontianak о Parigi Biak о о Balikpapan Palu о о о o Sarmi Palembang Sorong Bengkulu о о Palopo o о o o Jayapura Belitung о Fakfak о Sampit o Kendari o Jakarta Banjarmasin о о Timika Cirebon Makassar Kolaka Ambon Kalianda о Semarang o о Bulukumba o o o о Surabaya о о Maumere o o Raba o о о Ende o о o о о о о Saumlaki Sumatera о Ketapang Kalabahi Merauke Mataram o о Atambua Waingapu Kupang Maluku - Papua Jawa Sumbawa Nusa Tenggara 1. Sumatra km 2. Jawa km 3. Kalimantan km 4. Sulawesi km 5. Maluku km 6. Nusatenggara 3480 km 7. Papua km 8. Connecting Line 2063 km Total backbone network km Cost US$ 17

18 Backbone Domestic - Trans Microwave (operated by Telkom)
LEGEND : SKKL SKSO NR & SR JAWA - BALI GMD JAWA-BALI, CROSS KALIMANTAN, NUSA TENGGARA & TRANS SULAWESI SKSO RA-IV SUMATRA GMD RA-IV SUMATRA BATAS NEGARA GMD PARMO SULAWESI GMD TSM-1 SUMATRA GMD TSM-2 SUMATRA GMD XSUM SUMATRA SKSO HPBB SUMATRA SKKL TIS BNA LSM MDN TAR SULAWESI MO SUMATERA PBR SKN TT MALUKU PTK KALIMANTAN SMR GTO BPD MW BIA JB PAL LWK SON PD PLK BPP SMI PSO BJM SNN JAP PG BN BTA TJN FF GKRS NAB PRE KDI LT ON MET AB IRIAN JAYA GBL BDL JKT JAWA UP CBN BOO PKL SM BMA SB BD PWT M N GB JR PGL LRT KAI YK SLO MTR BJW MRK ML BWI DPR RTG END MME ATB KEF SOE NUSA TENGGARA KP

19 Backbone Domestic – Satellite (operated by Telkom)
Palapa C2 Telkom-1 Palapa B4 TELKOM-2/24Xpdr TELKOM-3/48Xpdr Year 2008 BNA LSM MDN TAR SULAWESI MO SUMATERA PBR MALUKU SKN TT PTK KALIMANTAN SMR GTO BPD MW BIA JB PAL LWK SON PD PLK BPP SMI PSO SNN PG BJM JAP BN BTA TJN FF GKRS NAB ON PRE KDI LT MET AB GBL IRIAN JAYA BDL JAWA UP JKT CBN BOO PKL SM SB BMA BD PWT M GB YK SLO N JR LRT KAI MTR PGL BJW MRK ML BWI DPR RTG END MME LEGEND : ATB KEF GMD TSM-2 SUMATRA SKSO NR & SR JAWA - BALI SOE NUSA TENGGARA KP GMD XSUM SUMATRA SKKL GMD TSM-1 SUMATRA GMD JAWA-BALI, CROSS KALIMANTAN, NUSA TENGGARA & TRANS SULAWESI SKSO HPBB SUMATRA GMD RA-IV SUMATRA GMD PARMO SULAWESI SKSO RA-IV SUMATRA SKKL TIS BATAS NEGARA

20 Universal Service Obligations (USO) Programs
Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) will be utilized as tools to “attack” the digital divide in Indonesia 2.3 GHz will be granted for operator who wins the USO program BWA in USO program will be integrated to existing national backbone and/or soon to be built backbone announced as Villages Ringing – phones for 38,471 villages (out of 69,065) Smart Villages – Internet for all villages

21 LOCAL LANGUAGE COMPUTING POLICY
1945 Constitution (UUD) - Chapter XV – Paragraph 36: “The national Language of Indonesia is Indonesian”. UU/Law No.2/1989 – National Education. UU/Law No.22/1999 – Local Autonomy. UU/Law No.25/1999 – Financial Balance between Center and Local Government. Government Regulation No.25/2000 – Share Authority between Center and Local Government. Draft Law of Language: the uses/management/development/foster/ maintenance of National/Local and Foreign Languages. Draft Law of Information and Electronic Transaction. Draft Law of Freedom of Information Flow and Access. 2008: Language Center of Ministry of National Education will publish Local Language Mapping & Inter-relationship Diagram. Blue-Print/Researh management plan for safety effort of the endangered languages by Language Center of Ministry of National Education.

22 RELEVANT GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
Ministry of National Education – National Language Center Ministry of Communication and Information Technology Ministry of Research and Technology – Technology Development and Implementation Agency Ministry of Culture and Tourism Universities - Department of Language/Literary House of Representative National Center for Statistics Ministry of Social Affairs - Directorate of Isolated Tribes The Summer Institute of Linguistics The National Language Organization Other Private Organizations/Foundations – Culture/Language/ Literary/ICT (Software, Hardware, & Services)

23 POLICY/PROJECT INITIATIVES
The National Language mapping Project by National Language Center: “Research on Cognates & Mapping of Regional Languages in Indonesia”, started for 15 years. Thesaurus/Spelling Checker Project of National/Indonesian Language by University of Indonesia and the team. Javanese Script Project by University of Indonesia and the team. Ford Foundation: Initiative in Local Language Inventory of Local Languages Education and Research in Universities. Universities Video Conferencing Network Project (INHERENT 2006) - connecting 32 Universities/Cities in Indonesia. Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) - connecting 4 Universities in Indonesia (UI-Jakarta, UNRI-Pekanbaru, UDAYANA-Denpasar, UNHAS-Makassar) with 60 countries. Presidential Decree on Underdeveloped Villages. Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia

24 Initiative in Local Language Inventory
of Local Languages Education and Research in Universities 40 Universities all over Indonesia Thousands of languages research projects > 556 Courses taught

25 ACEH

26 EAST JAVA

27 PAPUA

28 COURSES TAUGHT IN UNIVERSITIES

29 Papers

30 Universities Video Conference Network in Indonesia (Connecting 32 Cities)
155 Mbps ( STM - 1 ) 8 Inherent 2006 2 Banda Aceh Medan Serang Bandung Jkt - UI DIKTI Jogja Malang Surabaya Semarang Denpasar Bandar Lampung Bengkulu Pontianak Padang Palangkaraya Palembang Jambi Pekanbaru Makasar Palu Manado Samarinda Banjarmasin Gorontalo Kendari Kupang Mataram Jayapura Manukwari Ternate Ambon 1 Mbps ( Redundant Link ) Bandwith: Note: Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) - Connecting 60 countries; Indonesia (UI-Jakarta, UNRI- Pekanbaru, UDAYANA-Denpasar, UNHAS-Makassar)

31 Conclusions Indonesia is 2nd ranked as language diversity laboratory in the world, which has more than 700 local languages, 10 local languages have their own local scripts The policy for language revitalization as well as its culture is needed to sustained the local languages, because there are hundreds of local languages with less than one million speakers, will become potentially endangered languages, endangered languages, seriously endangered languages, moribound languages, or even extinct languages The promotion of Multilingualism in the Internet using local languages is needed for information to be accesible by everyone, anywhere, at anytime, by anydevice - to build the Information Society target in 2015 Plan to join the UNL System developed by UNDL Foundation of United Nation to bridge the digital divide problem in Indonesia

32 REFERENCES [Alwi 2000] Alwi, Hasan and Dendy Sugono Politik Bahasa: Risalah Seminar Politik Bahasa. Pusat Bahasa, Jakarta. [Comrie 2003] Comrie, Bernard et.al The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World. Singapore: Star Standard. [Crystal 2000] Crystal, David Language Death. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. [Grimes 1996] Grimes, Barbara F Ethnologue. Summer Institute of Linguistics. [Hammam 2006] Hammam, Riza et.al Indonesian Languages Diversity on the Internet. [Lauder 2000] Lauder, Multamia RMT Unity and diversity in Indonesia’s Linguistic Heritage. University Indonesia, Jakarta. [Lauder ] Lauder, Multamia RMT Revitalisasi Bahasa Minoritas, Seminar Pelestarian Bahasa Daerah. Direktorat Riset & Pengabdian Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia. [Lauder ] Lauder, Allan The Status and Function of English in Indonesia: A Review of Key Factors. University Indonesia, Jakarta. [SIL 2001] SIL International, Indonesia Branch Languages of Indonesia. Jakarta: SIL International, Indonesia Branch. [Sugono 2001] Sugono, Dendy and Abdul Rozak Zaidan (editor) Bahasa Daerah dan Otonomi Daerah (Local Languages and Local Autonomy). Ministry of National Education.

33 THANK YOU


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