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1 International Organization for Migration The Problem of Irregular Migration: What Can Be Done to Combat Criminal People-Trafficking Networks? Paris,

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Presentation on theme: "1 International Organization for Migration The Problem of Irregular Migration: What Can Be Done to Combat Criminal People-Trafficking Networks? Paris,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 International Organization for Migration The Problem of Irregular Migration: What Can Be Done to Combat Criminal People-Trafficking Networks? Paris, 18.-19. November 2004 Frank Laczko & Heikki Mattila Publications and Research Division, IOM Geneva, Switzerland Last updated, 17.11.04

2 2 Outline 1) Trends 2) Definitions 3) Policy Responses 4) Challenges

3 3 Irregular Migration - Definition Sending Country: - Failing to meet requirements to travel - To travel without respecting the restrictions imposed to regulate emigration (bypass exit controls) Destination Country: - Irregular Entry - Overstaying - Irregular residence - Irregular employment

4 4 Global Migration Dynamics 1) Emigration push in sending countries Survival migration: Poverty/ Escape from economic distress Survival migration: Poverty/ Escape from economic distress Unemployment/ Underemployment Unemployment/ Underemployment Opportunity seeking migration Opportunity seeking migration Feminization of Poverty Feminization of Poverty Environmental disruption Environmental disruption Conflicts/ Violations of Human Rights Conflicts/ Violations of Human Rights Demography Demography

5 5 Global Migration Dynamics 2) Demand Pull in Destination Countries Demography Demography Labour shortages Labour shortages Demand of cheap labour Demand of cheap labour High skilled workers: directly or via menial jobs and regularization High skilled workers: directly or via menial jobs and regularization

6 6 Migration Trends Net Immigration (EU & Efta 2003): 1 Million Net Immigration (EU & Efta 2003): 1 Million Illegal Inflows to EU 15 (2001): 808,3000 Illegal Inflows to EU 15 (2001): 808,3000 EU 15: Growth of employment in 1997-2002: 12 M (+8,1%), 9,5 M from EU and 2,5 M 3 rd countries EU 15: Growth of employment in 1997-2002: 12 M (+8,1%), 9,5 M from EU and 2,5 M 3 rd countries Regularizations: EU – 15 1995 – 2002: 2,5 Million 1973 - : < 4 Million Regularizations: EU – 15 1995 – 2002: 2,5 Million 1973 - : < 4 Million Seasonal & Temporary (2001): 529,000 Seasonal & Temporary (2001): 529,000

7 7 Source: World Migration Report 2005 (to be published in 2005) Regularizations in OECD Countries

8 8 Migration Trends Illegal migration flows to the EU estimated to be 808,300 in 2001 (ICMPD). Illegal migration flows to the EU estimated to be 808,300 in 2001 (ICMPD). Decrease of asylum applications in the EU since 1999. Decrease of asylum applications in the EU since 1999.200120022003 EU 25 438,953425,526346,686 United Kingdom 92,000110,70049,400 Germany88,28771,12750,600 France47,29150,79859,800

9 9 200120022003 Russian Federation 16,86618,66638,900 China8,73012,99637,100 Dem. Republic of Congo 9,17612,48235,800 Iraq47,53850,05832,107 Afghanistan49,91425,47022,403 Trends in Irregular Migration Overview of origin of Asylum seekers Overview of origin of Asylum seekers Migration Trends

10 10 Definition of Trafficking in Persons UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons (Article 3): Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;

11 11 Definition of Migrant Smuggling Article 2, Revised Draft Protocol against Smuggling in Migrants by Land, Air and Sea. Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime: The international procurement for profit for illegal entry of a person into and& or illegal residence in a State of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident.

12 12 Definition of Organized Crime Groups UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Article 2a): A structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes and offences established in accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain directly, or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit..

13 13 Division of Labour Arrangers/ Investors Arrangers/ Investors Recruiters Recruiters Transporters Transporters Corrupt Police Officers Corrupt Police Officers Informers Informers Guides Guides Enforcers Enforcers Supporting Personnel and Specialists Supporting Personnel and Specialists Debt Collectors Debt Collectors Money-Movers Money-Movers Ethnic – multi ethnic Ethnic – multi ethnic

14 14 Structure of Organized Crime Groups Trafficking as a business Trafficking as a business Transnational Corporations? Individuals/ Small Groups/ International Networks Individuals/ Small Groups/ International Networks Loosely connected international networks Loosely connected international networks No central mastermind/ godfather No central mastermind/ godfather Vertical – horizontal interdependence Vertical – horizontal interdependence Full service: Chinese, Albania, Russia Full service: Chinese, Albania, Russia

15 15 Ways to Combat Smuggling and Trafficking Networks 1) Prosecution & Law Enforcement Adoption/ Implementation of laws and sharpening of definitions Training Adoption/ Implementation of laws and sharpening of definitions Training Introduce uniform penalties for traffickers Introduce uniform penalties for traffickers Need to maximize cooperation in Europe (Information exchange, harmonization of legal frameworks) Need to maximize cooperation in Europe (Information exchange, harmonization of legal frameworks) Target the profits (Offences for money-laundering, asset seizure and forfeiture) Target the profits (Offences for money-laundering, asset seizure and forfeiture) Attack corrupt support structures and networks Attack corrupt support structures and networks

16 16 Ways to Combat Smuggling and Trafficking Networks 2) Protection Prohibition of human trafficking in national legislation Prohibition of human trafficking in national legislation Possibility for victims to stay in destination country to testify; and beyond Possibility for victims to stay in destination country to testify; and beyond Victim support systems (legal aid, social benefits, health care, witness protection) Victim support systems (legal aid, social benefits, health care, witness protection) Rehabilitation of the victims Rehabilitation of the victims Increase number of signatory states to existing international instruments Increase number of signatory states to existing international instruments Return and Re-integration Return and Re-integration

17 17 Ways to Combat Smuggling and Trafficking Networks 3) Prevention Development: Job-creation Development: Job-creation Promote good governance Promote good governance Promote and enhance the democratic process Promote and enhance the democratic process Law Enforcement & Capacity-Building Law Enforcement & Capacity-Building Increase research and data collection Increase research and data collection Attack the basis of illicit markets through education on supply and demand side Attack the basis of illicit markets through education on supply and demand side Combat underground economies and informal labour markets in destination country Combat underground economies and informal labour markets in destination country Improved control and monitoring of borders Improved control and monitoring of borders Open more legal migration channels? Open more legal migration channels?

18 18 EU Initiatives 1) Tampere European Council 1999 2) Framework Decision on Combating the Trafficking in Human Beings 3) Comprehensive Plan to Combat Illegal Immigration and Trafficking of Human Beings in the EU 2002 4) Brussels Declaration on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2002 5) European Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings, 2004

19 19 IOM Approach 1) Prevention Information dissemination Information dissemination Development and job creation Development and job creation 2) Prosecution Support and Technical Cooperation to Support and Technical Cooperation to Law enforcement Law enforcement Migration management and Migration management and Judiciary Judiciary 3) Protection Accomodation & Rehabilitation Accomodation & Rehabilitation Return & Reintegration Return & Reintegration 4) Regional Policy Dialogue; Research

20 20 Challenges Broad based partnership between governments, civil society and business sector Broad based partnership between governments, civil society and business sector Coordinated policy mix Coordinated policy mix Dialogue & Partnership between regions and cultures to counter global polarization of wealth, religions and ideologies Dialogue & Partnership between regions and cultures to counter global polarization of wealth, religions and ideologies Address demographic developments Address demographic developments More legal channels More legal channels The irregulars and their rights and integration The irregulars and their rights and integration inclusive policies inclusive policies


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