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Relevant Issues in effective Management of Technology Dr Kampan Mukherjee Dean(Academic)& Professor, Department of Management Studies ISM, Dhanbad.

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Presentation on theme: "Relevant Issues in effective Management of Technology Dr Kampan Mukherjee Dean(Academic)& Professor, Department of Management Studies ISM, Dhanbad."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relevant Issues in effective Management of Technology Dr Kampan Mukherjee Dean(Academic)& Professor, Department of Management Studies ISM, Dhanbad

2 Technology Management Management of any technology from its inception to expiry, to create competitive advantage Management of any technology from its inception to expiry, to create competitive advantage Relevant principles: I.Involves all management functional areas II.Technology – either market-pulled or innovation / inputs / resource pushed III.Technology Life Cycle with four stages – introduction, growth, maturity and decline IV.Impact of scale factor – efficiency achieved over time and with increase of volume of activities / production

3 Forms of Technology advances in industry I.Product Technology: Use value enhancement at customers end. II.Process Technology: Radical change in production / conversion method for better productivity, efficiency, quality, safety etc. III.Information Technology Services: IT as service provider in managing data / information for management and control of all activities of any organization, also for data handling and communication for people at large IV.Marketing and Distribution Services: Impact of internet and e-commerce for global marketing and control on logistics

4 I.Technology Forecasting Prediction of future technology for a sector, process, or organization. Prediction of future technology for a sector, process, or organization. Important factors – change of global technology, technology of prospective users, socio-economic factors, governmental factors etc. Important factors – change of global technology, technology of prospective users, socio-economic factors, governmental factors etc. Delphi Technique – iterative method of extracting opinions of experts for reaching a consensus. Delphi Technique – iterative method of extracting opinions of experts for reaching a consensus.

5 II.Technology Selection Complex decision making process for selecting most feasible / viable technology. Complex decision making process for selecting most feasible / viable technology. Feasibility – availability of skilled manpower, spare parts, matching with upstream and downstream processes, foreign exchange factor, socio-political factors etc. Feasibility – availability of skilled manpower, spare parts, matching with upstream and downstream processes, foreign exchange factor, socio-political factors etc. Best or most worth – financial criteria like, payback period, ROI, NPV, IRR etc Best or most worth – financial criteria like, payback period, ROI, NPV, IRR etc

6 III. Technology (also Knowledge) Transfer Process of sharing skills, knowledge, machines / tools, methods / process etc among organizations for increase of accessibility of scientific and technological development. Process of sharing skills, knowledge, machines / tools, methods / process etc among organizations for increase of accessibility of scientific and technological development. Also results in better technology diffusion Also results in better technology diffusion Transfer of both Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Transfer of both Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge – difficult, more intangibles. Tacit Knowledge – difficult, more intangibles. Key factors – behavioral expectations or awareness, cultural values Key factors – behavioral expectations or awareness, cultural values Key approaches – communication, cross-cultural teambuilding Key approaches – communication, cross-cultural teambuilding

7 IV. Technology Diffusion Very close bonding with market related information and societal environment Very close bonding with market related information and societal environment Process of adopting new technology by the market / society Process of adopting new technology by the market / society Existence of 5 groups of people (Everett Rogers) Existence of 5 groups of people (Everett Rogers) Innovators – 2.5%; mostly young and educated, more prosperous, risk-takers Innovators – 2.5%; mostly young and educated, more prosperous, risk-takers Early Adopters – 13.5%; young, educated Early Adopters – 13.5%; young, educated Early Majority – 34%; little conservative but open to new ideas, community friendly & socially active Early Majority – 34%; little conservative but open to new ideas, community friendly & socially active Late Majority – 34%; older & less educated, fairly conservative, less socially active Late Majority – 34%; older & less educated, fairly conservative, less socially active Laggards – 16%; very conservative, small firm & capital, least educated Laggards – 16%; very conservative, small firm & capital, least educated

8 5 stages of technology diffusion / adoption as experienced by the prospective adopters 5 stages of technology diffusion / adoption as experienced by the prospective adopters Knowledge – exposed to new technology, but not inspired or motivated to seek detailed information Knowledge – exposed to new technology, but not inspired or motivated to seek detailed information Persuasion – actively seeking information and details Persuasion – actively seeking information and details Decision – weighs advantages and disadvantages of its use; adopt or reject Decision – weighs advantages and disadvantages of its use; adopt or reject Implementation – implement the technology at a lower scale for test run Implementation – implement the technology at a lower scale for test run Confirmation – adopt to fullest extent Confirmation – adopt to fullest extent

9 Product Development General steps for Product Development: 1.Idea Generation 2.Product Selection 3.Preliminary Design 4.Prototyping 5.Testing 6.Detailed Design Some relevant design tools / approaches: Quality Function Deployment(QFD) / House of Quality(HOQ) Quality Function Deployment(QFD) / House of Quality(HOQ) Concurrent Engineering Concurrent Engineering CAD CAD

10 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Translates voice of customers to technical design requirements Translates voice of customers to technical design requirements Displays requirements in matrix diagrams Displays requirements in matrix diagrams each matrix called house of quality each matrix called house of quality series of connected houses series of connected houses

11 House of Quality Trade-off matrix Design characteristics Customer requirements Target values Relationship matrix Competitive assessment Importance

12 Competitive Assessment of Customer requirements with A and B (a simple example of electric iron) Irons well Easy and safe to use Competitive Assessment Customer Requirements Customer Requirements12345 X Presses quickly9BAX X Removes wrinkles8ABX X Doesnt stick to fabric6XBA X Provides enough steam8ABX X Doesnt spot fabric6XAB X Doesnt scorch fabric9AXB X Heats quickly6XBA X Automatic shut-off3ABX X Quick cool-down3XAB X Doesnt break when dropped5ABX X Doesnt burn when touched5ABX X Not too heavy8XAB

13 Energy needed to press Weight of iron Size of soleplate Thickness of soleplate Material used in soleplate Number of holes Size of holes Flow of water from holes Time required to reach 450º F Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Automatic shutoff Customer Requirements Presses quickly Removes wrinkles+++++ Doesnt stick to fabric-++++ Provides enough steam++++ Doesnt spot fabric+--- Doesnt scorch fabric+++-+ Heats quickly--+- Automatic shut-off+ Quick cool-down--++ Doesnt break when dropped++++ Doesnt burn when touched++++ Not too heavy Irons well Easy and safe to use From Customer Requirements to Design Characteristics

14 Energy needed to press Weight of iron Size of soleplate Thickness of soleplate Material used in soleplate Number of holes Size of holes Flow of water from holes Time required to reach 450º Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Automatic shutoff Tradeoff Matrix

15 Energy needed to press Weight of iron Size of soleplate Thickness of soleplate Material used in soleplate Number of holes Size of holes Flow of water from holes Time required to reach 450º Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Automatic shutoff Units of measure ft-lblbin.cmtyeammoz/ssecsecY/NY/N Iron A 31.48x42SS NY Iron B 41.28x41MG NY Our Iron (X) 21.79x54T NY Estimated impact Estimated cost Targets 1.28x53SS Design changes ******* Objective measures Targeted Changes in Design

16 SS = Silverstone MG = Mirorrglide T = Titanium Completed House of Quality

17 A Series of Connected QFD Houses Customer requirements House of quality Product characteristics A-1 Product characteristics Parts deployment Part characteristics A-2 Part characteristics Process planning Process characteristics A-3 Process characteristics Operating requirements Operations A-4

18 Benefits of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands Promotes better understanding of customer demands Promotes better understanding of design interactions Promotes better understanding of design interactions Involves manufacturing in design process Involves manufacturing in design process Breaks down barriers between functions and departments Breaks down barriers between functions and departments Provides documentation of design process Provides documentation of design process


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