The Prime Purpose of Science and Technology is not to change the Universe but : To get the answers of some of the queries about Our- selves And to make it a Boon for the Humanity Carl Sagan (1934 –1996)
INNOVATION The word innovation comes from the Latin Innovatus and is defined as the ability to manage change as an opportunity, not as a threat. The future of crop production will, to a significant extent, depend on innovation and how successful developers of biotech crops will be in pursuing innovation through a sequential Three I Strategy – Ingenuity, Innovation and Implementation.
Agriculture is at the Center of Societys Most Important Debates Today New technologies are needed to address these challenges effectively Global food security Increasing food, feed & fiber demand driven by increasing population & income levels In seven out of the last eight years, the world has consumed more grain than it produced. Water availability Depleting water table Growing demand for Biofuels Global warming CO 2 footprint Fertilizer use
Breeding & Biotech and Agronomic Practices are Critical for Improving Production and Food Security Production Area Productivity Breeding (Seeds) & Biotech Plant nutrition Irrigation Agronomic practices Technology, research innovations critical to constantly improve seeds Fertilizer penetration high but scope to improve balance of fertiliser types Well irrigation overused, canals investment intensive Training can play crucial role Mechanization may be necessary A Holistic action plan will help Indian Agriculture reach its full Potential Significant growth potential Moderate potential Limited potential, constrained lever
30000 Genes 3 %of total DNA 2 M stretchable per cell 1953 Annus mirabillis Queen Crowned Everest climbed DNA unzipped Max Perutz Nobel (Chemistry) 1962 We have discovered the secret of life. F. Crick Remarks in Eagle
Francis and I were running against God, in the sense that we wanted to know what made us human. Both of us had been subjected to religious truths which came by revelation, and we didnt have much acceptance of truths by revelation. We wanted to know really what we were. We were both very curious about what life was. What is life? And that thinking led us to What is a gene? James Watson
Modern Biology Physics Information technology Medicine COMP. Engineering Chemistry Mathematics Biology It declares that we are physical machines that have somehow learned to think and are reprogrammable. Jeff St SchellE Nester M d Chilton M GordonMarc van Montagu
Asilomar Conference Feb. 1975 Mandate: No pathogenic to be tinkered Adopted by USA In the wild, you study it, in agriculture and restoration, you tweak it.
Bt Cotton has reduced insecticide sprays, increased yield Bt cotton provides in built protection to cotton against bollworms – Bt in spray form has been used since 1950s & recommended in organic farming too Cotton yield almost doubled from 302kgs/Ha in 2002-03 to 567 kgs/Ha in 2007-08 (Cotton Advisory Board) – India from the 2 nd largest importer in 2002 has become the 2 nd largest exporter in 2008 – Studies indicate additional value creation of Rs. 40,000 crores in the value chain annually (Rs. 25,000 crores to farmers & labour) With significant health and environmental benefits – An estimated 20,000 Mt of active-ingredient sprays of insecticide reduced annually – UAS Dharwad in a study concluded significant reduction in health hazards among cotton farm workers linked with insecticide applications – PAU study confirmed reduction in pesticide costs and ultimately checking of suicides among farmers Non Bt Cotton
Bio-safety conclusions Bt-cotton has the same food, feed and environmental characteristics as non-Bt cotton There is no difference in allergenicity between Bt and non-Bt cotton Bt cotton is not toxic to mammals including ruminants, birds, fish, beneficial and non-target insects Risk from pollen flow is negligible Bt cotton is substantially equivalent to non-Bt cotton
Efficient Weed Control is a Key Challenge as Weeds Cause Significant Yield Losses Arranging farm labour has become a significant challenge for farmers during critical crop stages Weeds cause yield losses of around Rs. 1 lakh crores globally, of which 3/4 d is in developing world (source: Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur) Herbicide tolerant crops offer farmers a choice to better manage their weed control operations, improve efficiency of farm operations and obtain higher crop yields o Cotton & Corn HT traits under field trials in India Weeds do not hit the headlines like droughts, insect plagues or even swine flu, but cause substantial human misery, quietly and constantly- Ricardo Labrada-Romero, Weed Expert of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
COLLABORATION WITH Worlds First Drought Tolerant Corn ready for Launch in 2012 in USA DROUGHT TOLERANT CORN FAMILY: LEAD PROJECT COLLABORATION WITH ControlWith Gene Corn with Drought Gene
Drought Tolerant Cotton will be a Boon for all Rainfed Farmers DROUGHT-TOLERANT COTTON CONTROLWITH GENE CONTROLWITH GENE GENE 1 GENE 2 TESTING MULTIPLE GENES FOR IN-FIELD PROOF OF CONCEPT COLLABORATION WITH
For fame is not achieved by sitting on feather cushions or lying in bed" Dante - In Divina Commedia. Miracle Rice - The Key to Saving Millions From VAD : A Tour De Force in biotechnology by Ingo Potrykus 1992-1999 Golden Rice 2 to be out by 2011 Humanitarian Golden Rice Network President Ingo Potrykus $20 million grant from Gates Foundation and Rotary International
Nitrogen Utilization Trait Offers Tremendous Benefits to Farmer, Government and Environment PROVIDES BENEFITS to both FARMERs AND ENVIRONMENT Nitrogen Utilization Corn: Can potentially boost yield under normal nitrogen conditions or stabilize it in low nitrogen environments Under limited nitrogen conditions, lead trait has demonstrated yield advantages over multiple years Can reduce agricultures overall impact on the environment Nitrogen Facts Only 40-60% of Nitrogen applied to corn is taken up and used during the first year Govt. of India spends ~Rs. 1 lakh crores annually on fertiliser subsidy and Nitrogen fertilisers are key N 2 O is ~290X more potent greenhouse gas than CO 2
All the countries in EU (except 5) are cultivating or conducting field trials of Biotech crops 7 Countries in EU are Planting Biotech Crops; 40 Biotech Crop Events are Approved For Food, Feed & Cultivation in EU EU imports 40 million Mt of biotech Soybean every year EU imports 4 – 6 million Mt of biotech Maize products from US every year
MILLION ACRES GLOBAL BIOTECH ACRES The rapid Adoption of Biotech across the World confirm Significant Benefits to Farmers & Society 55 countries in the world have approved & are consuming biotech products 25 countries in the world (Asia, North & South America, EU, Australia Africa) are planting biotech crops Total of 539 product approvals of 107 biotech events in 21 crops have been granted across the world till 2006. SOURCE: ISAAA estimates
There Are Number of Biotech Food Crops Planted Around The World CropCountry PlantingBiotech Trait Sweet PepperChinaVirus tolerance PapayaChina, USAVirus tolerance TomatoChina, USADelayed ripening SugarbeetUSA, CanadaHerbicide tolerance SquashUSAVirus tolerance Maize17 countriesInsect & Herbicide tolerance Soybean10 countriesHerbicide tolerance Canola4 countriesHerbicide tolerance Six biotech crops are planted in China currently and 3 of them are food crops China has announced commercial Bt Rice cultivation within one year China currently spends the highest amount in the world on agricultural biotech research Source: ISAAA, 2008
25 Nobel Prize winners & 3,400 prominent scientists have concluded that GM crops are a powerful and safe way to improve agriculture and the environment 1.4 crores farmers in 25 countries plant biotech crops 90% of biotech crop farmers today are from developing countries A cumulative 170 crores biotech acres have been harvested Over half the worlds 6.5 billion people live in the 25 countries where biotech crops are grown Global Impacts of Biotech Crops since 1996: Increased net income for farmers by more than Rs. 25,000 crores in 2005 Reduced pesticide applications by almost 286 million kgs Decreased greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) by 10 billion kgs in 2005 55% of this increase went to farmers in the developing world in 2005 Equivalent to removing almost 40 lakh cars from the road for 1 year Sources: G. Brookes, PG Economics 2006 Increased net income for farmers by more than Rs. 1.35 lakh crores in these 10 years Benefits of Biotech Crops have been Demonstrated Globally
FUTURE PROSPECTS – World Drought tolerant maize – 2012 Golden Rice (Vitamin A) – 2013 Bt Rice – before MDG of 2015 (potential benefit 1 billion poor people in rice households in Asia alone) Biotech crops can make an enormous contribution to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of cutting poverty in half, by optimizing crop productivity in a proposed global initiative to honor the legacy of ISAAAs founding patron, and Nobel Peace Laureate, Norman Borlaug, who saved 1 billion people from hunger
READS FUNNY BUT A REAL PICTURE OF MYTHS In 2004 in America, voters in Mendocino County, California, banned the cultivation of GMOs in the county and at the same time legally redefined DNA as a protein. A Judge in the Philippines asks just how strolling through a GM cornfield can cause a man to become gay. Farmers in India are told that GE seeds carry a Terminator gene that renders the seeds sterile and will infect other crops, causing them to be sterile too. The president of Zambia rejected food aid for his country (in the midst of a terrible famine) as he was counseled that the GM corn food aid was poisonous. Fables like these are also popular in GM Crops / Technology 2010
Bt Brinjal, a Thoroughly Studied Biotech Crop with Significant Benefits for Farmers & Consumer * Rajya Sabha, 2003; Lok Sabha, 2005 Bt nonBt Farmers spray up to 70 times (avg 25) in Brinjal crop to protect from Fruit & Shoot Borer (FSB) losses (app.. Rs. 120 crores on insecticides) FSB causes yield loss of 40 – 50% in Brinjal crop Pesticide residue in vegetables is frequently above allowable Maximum Residue Level*, product like Bt Brinjal offers a safer solution to consumers Bt Brinjal technology developed by Mahyco, TNAU, UAS Dharwad and IIVR. In addition Cornell University, USA, University of Philippines and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institutes are also involved in the development 25 safety studies have been done by various Indian institutes on Bt Brinjal confirming its safety to environment, humans, animals, soil micro flora etc.
Indian farmers are the fastest adopters of Bt cotton – testimony to the significant value it creates USA – Bt cotton 1996 – 2010 China – Bt cotton 1998-2010 India – Bt cotton 2002-2010 Source: ISAAA Reports In the first seven years itself, farmers in India had adopted Bollard a third faster than Chinese farmers, and twice as fast as US farmers. Today, farmers plant Bollgard II and Bollgard on nearly 90 per cent of Indias cotton acres helping them save more, yield more and earn more. Years of Adoption Per cent adoption on cotton acres
Seed Biotech in 2011 – World Update 2011 is the 16th anniversary of farmers planting biotech crops (1996- 2011) Accumulated hectares (1996- 2011) exceed 1 Bn. ha (equal to total area of USA or China) 90-fold increase in hectares (1996-2011) makes biotech the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture 30 countries plant biotech crops; top 10 countries each grew >1 Mn. ha. 59% or ~4 billion people of worlds population live in the 29 countries planting biotech crops 15.4 Mn. farmers grew biotech crops – over 90%, or 14.4 million, were small resource-poor farmers in developing countries Eight European countries grew either Bt maize or the Amflora starch potato (1 st planting approval in 13 years in EU)
Scientific officials report on safety and benefits of biotech crops …in those countries where transgenic crops have been grown, there have been no verifiable reports of… health or environmental harm. - UN FAO World Health Organization Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations National Academy of Sciences (USA) Royal Society (UK) American Medical Association (USA) French Academy of Medicine European Commission U.S. Food & Drug Administration Society of Toxicology Institute of Food Technologists Source: FAO, 2001. 25 Nobel Prize winners and more than 3,400 leading scientists have expressed their support for plant biotechnology as a powerful and safe way to improve agriculture and the environment.
Norman Borlaug 1914-2009 The Nobel Peace Prize 1970
There Are Number of Biotech Food Crops Planted Around The World CropCountry PlantingBiotech Trait Sweet PepperChinaVirus tolerance PapayaChina, USAVirus tolerance TomatoChina, USADelayed ripening SugarbeetUSA, CanadaHerbicide tolerance SquashUSAVirus tolerance Maize17 countriesInsect & Herbicide tolerance Soybean10 countriesHerbicide tolerance Canola4 countriesHerbicide tolerance Six biotech crops are planted in China currently, 3 are food crops China is committed to commercialise Bt Rice in one year China currently spends the highest amount in the world on agricultural biotech research Source: ISAAA, 2008
Biotechnology is a Scale Neutral Technology. Small/Marginal Farmers in India have Benefited the most by its adoption. 48 Lakh small & marginal cotton farmers are benefiting from Bt cotton in India Lakhs of farmers in Philippines, China, South Africa, Burkina Faso & other developing countries have benefited from these crops More than 90% of additional benefits of Bt cotton have gone to farmers* Bt cotton adoption increases returns to labour, especially for hired female workers. Likewise, aggregate household incomes rise, including the poor and vulnerable farmers. Hence, Bt cotton contributes to poverty reduction and rural development** Bt cotton generates additional employment, raising the total wage income by Rs. 2000 per hectare for hired female workers. This translates to about 42.4 crores of additional employment opportunities for female earners for the total Bt cotton area in India*** Land HoldingProfit from Bt Cotton (Rs/Acre) Marginal10,385 Small7,599 Medium6,110 Large5,009 Source: AC Neilson Survey 2004 * Biotechnology and Pro-Poor Agricultural Development By NC Rao and SM Dev; Economics & Political Weekly ** The Impact of Bt Cotton on Poor Households in Rural India By A. Subramanian and M. Qaim; Journal of Developmental Studies *** GM Crops and Gender Issues; Nature Biotechnology; May 2010 Biotech crops have no impact on the farmers ability to save seed. Farmers still retains the same option as with any other non-biotech seed