Presentation on theme: "Maya Menon Director The Teacher Foundation, Bangalore"— Presentation transcript:
1 Maya Menon Director The Teacher Foundation, Bangalore
2 The ELT Operating Environment in India Why we need English …
3 What can you identify?11 Indian Languages, 1 from Sri Lanka and 1 From Britain – at least that’s what it is for us in India. I should be knowing at least 2 Indian languages – but I actually can read and write ( very minimally) 1, but I understand about 5 Indian languages – with no working knowledge at all !
4 3 Keys to understand… India is Complex India is grappling with many ChallengesIndia today is a land of tremendous potential and opportunity3 Keys to Understand the ELT Operating Environment in India
5 India is complex…. 1.1 Billion People 28 States and 7 Union Territories set up on linguistic basis22 (Modern) Indian languages coexist; rationalised languages and 1576 other mother tongues.3592 Newspapers in 35 different languages !Radio broadcasts in 146 Languages and dialectsEducation in the Concurrent List of the Constitution - both Centre and State have a stakeSource : Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India
8 From the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India The (language) policy is intended to encourage the citizens to use their mother tongue ……., but the stated goal of the policy is to help all languages to develop into fit vehicles of communication at their designated areas of use, irrespective of their nature or status like major, minor, or tribal languages. The policy is accommodative and ever-evolving, through mutual adjustment, consensus, and judicial processes.
9 English vs. Regional Languages … English vs. Regional Languages ….the ever present political flash pointSamajwadi Party : We’ll ban English and computers – Party Manifesto also Opposes Mechanised Farming – The Sunday Times of India, 12th April 2009Amartya Sen : Warns against banning English Language Teaching (The Hindu – 21st April 2009)“SC Won’t stay English medium” The Karnataka Govt’s efforts to stall the registration of English-medium schools in the state fell flat on Wednesday with the Supreme Court turning down its plea.In Aug The Karnataka High Court stated that parents “shall choose what their children want and that they are free to disregard opinion even of experts in that regard” The Times of India, Bangalore May 13th 2009
10 The Indian Contradiction ! English has a unique position in India. Competence in the use of English is the single most important marker of a young person’s eligibility for negotiating the opportunity structure that the modern economy has made available. The ability to use English fluently has become a synecdoche, a socially understood shorthand, for general ability.Krishna Kumar (1996) : Learning from Conflict – Tracts for The Times/10The Skill in English gathers accompanying features such as self confidence, the consciousness of one’s point of view, assertiveness in expressing it and the desire to compete !
11 The Indian Contradiction ! School leavers who are not adequately trained in English as a language are always at a handicap in the world of higher educationProficiency in English is widely perceived as an important avenue for employment and upward mobility, which also greatly facilitates the pursuit of higher education.This reality is not lost on our people, who recognize that the English language is a critical determinant of access to, and opportunities for a better life.This reality is not lost on our people, who recognize that the English language is a critical determinant of access to, and opportunities for a better life. Available information suggests that middle-income or lower-income households spend a large proportion of their modest income on sending their children to relatively expensive English medium schools. Such educational opportunities for children are a priority that is almost at par with health care for the family. But there are a very large number of people who simply do not have the resources for this purpose. The outcome is exclusion. We believe that inclusion is possible through public provision. English has been part of our education system for more than a century. Yet, English is beyond the reach of most of our young people, which makes for highly unequal access. Indeed, even now, no more than 1 per cent of our people use it as a second language, let alone a first language. ( 10 million people)Sam Pitroda, National Knowledge Commission, 2006
12 The Place of English in India English serves as the connector between people speaking different mother tongues. English plays an important role in the domains of education, administration, business and political relations, judiciary, industry, etc.It is a passport to social mobility, higher education, and better job opportunities.In urban India, it is very common to see young people code-mixing and code-switching between English and other Indian languages. Prof. CN Subramanium ( NCERT Policy) “ I recall the firmness with which Gond tribal parents rejected the idea of teaching their children in Gondi language in the first years of their schooling. We were discussing the problem their children faced because they did not understand the language used in the school. The children felt terrorised, withdrew into themselves, and just stop relating to the class room processes. The alternative of course was to teach them in their mother tongue, Gondi, at least in the first two years and make a gradual transition to standard Hindi. The parents would hear nothing of it. ‘We will take care of Gondi at home. You teach Hindi and English in the school. They can’t get jobs with Gondi.’ Parents are not pedagogues but they understand their society fairly well and they can clearly see what facilitates mobility and what does not.”
13 The Great Indian Challenge Universal Elementary and Secondary Education – still elusiveAn all-India literacy rate of 65.2% at the last 2001 census (up from 52.2 % in 1991)Standards of Teaching and Learning – excellent to poorLow enrolment to Higher EducationPredominant sense of disconnect in the classroomNarrowness in terms of 1.coverage - narrow in terms of Educational mortality at the primary level, 2. Two subsystems – common and exclusive; restrictive admission policy with emphasis on homogeneity of social class, ability and behaviourBihar has a literacy rate of % and Kerala has a literacy rate of %. Has the highest female literacy – of 87.86% and Male literacy of 94.2%.
14 Glimpses of English Language Classrooms in Indian Schools The prevailing approach to teaching English as a first or a second language in 3 different kinds of Indian schools….
15 Estimated Population by Age Group (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
16 Enrolment in Education by Age Group (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
17 Number of Educational Institutions in India - Schools (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
18 Number of Students Enrolled in School vs. Completing School (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
19 Number & Type of Higher Education Institutions in India (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
20 A Break-up of Enrolment in Higher Education Approx. 9.3 million students in Higher Education(Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
21 Number of Students Completing Higher Education (2003) A total of 2,052,000 Graduates passed out in The given courses are some of the most sought after courses. Source UGCSource : University Grants Commission(Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
22 What India spends on School Education… (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
23 What India spends on Post School Education… (Educational Statistics at a Glance , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Govt. of India 2008)
24 India’s dismal Education Development Index (EDI) CountriesEDI in 2005(0-1)Rank out of 129 countriesEDI in 2006( 0-1)Japannot available.9942Norway.99514UK.9935France.99198Mexico.95348.95653China.93861.94759Brazil.9017680India.797105.794102Bangla Desh.795107.753109Pakistan.640120.652118
25 The Importance of the Indian IT Industry According to the NASSCOM-Deloitte study contribution to the GDP1.2 % in % in 2007Currently employs nearly 1.3 million IT professionalsIndian IT-ITES has helped create an additional 3 million job opportunities through indirect and induced employment.NASSCOM undertakes several measures to enhance the work skills of IT and ITES professionals.The IT-ITES industry also needs people who are not only technology experts, but also those who can manage customer interface at all levels. To address this, NASSCOM is working with the IT industry and Academia closely, and is organizing Industry-Academia workshops in various cities, wherein industry experts talk about the need to have expertise in non-technical areas like management and soft skills as well.MOUs with UGC, AICTE, launched National Assessment of Competence; industry academia partnerships.
26 Growth of the Indian BPO Industry Source NASSCOM
27 Recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission Teach our ordinary people English as a language in schoolsThis would provide far more equal access to HE and employment opportunitiesContextualise the pedagogy of language learningAssess for proficiency rather than mastery of single textsSet up a National Testing Service for certification of language competenceImprove the proficiency in English of nearly 4 million Indian teachers through vacation training programmesHas been met with considerable resistance from MHRD and UGC
28 Opportunities for ELT in India? 60% of Indians are between 15 –59 years. Half of them are below 25 yearsApproximately 58% of all higher education institutions are located in six states – Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil NaduBurgeoning IT/ITES Sector…..there’s a deficit of 0.5 million between the demand of and supply of IT manpowerAs of 2005 there are 131 Foreign education providers serving a few thousand studentsLinguistic rivalry amongst Indian states has helped English remain the official language of federal India along with HindiIn contrast, countries including the US, Europe, Japan and China have a more aged population with dependency ratios likely to increase over the same period.Source : Rohan Mukherjee ( 2008), Higher Education in India : An Overview and Opportunities for Foreign Participation, Centre for Policy ResearchProf Prasad Krishna, All India Council of Technical Education, 2005
29 Possible Ways ForwardPartner with the Govt. of India and / or State GovernmentsPartner with relevant Indian organisationsThe most important and relevant regulations are1. UGC (Establishment and Maintenance of Standards in Private Universities) Regulations 2003 – currently active.2. AICTE Regulations for Entry and Operation of Foreign Universities / Institutions Imparting Technical Education in India, 2005 – currently active.3. The Private Universities (Establishment and Regulation) Bill 1995 – withdrawn from Parliament in the 2007 Monsoon Session 36.4. The Private Professional Educational Institutions (Regulation of Admission and Fixation of Fee) Bill 2005 – pending (status unknown).5. The Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operation, Maintenance of Quality and Prevention of Commercialisation) Bill 2007 – yet to be introduced in Parliament.Source : Rohan Mukherjee ( 2008), Higher Education in India : An Overview and Opportunities for Foreign Participation, Centre for Policy ResearchHigher Education in India: An Overview and Opportunitiesfor Foreign ParticipationBy Rohan Mukherjee, Centre for Policy ResearchPrepared for the Canada-India Policy Dialogue, April 2-3, 2008, New Delhi, India, hosted by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada and the Centre for Policy Research, India.We have currently an inflexible regulatory framework for setting up private or foreign educational institutions
37 Large and growing market India’s private sector education and training market is estimated to be worth US$40bn, with a potential 16% five year CAGR (CLSA Asia: Pacific report, 2008)Of this, the adult market for ELT (aged 20+) is estimated to be worth around US$450mCLSA - estimates 3.8m people paying average fee of US$120
38 Majority of English Learning population aged below 18 Estimated 320m aged 5-17 (Census projected to 2008)249m students (the English learning population) enrolled at primary, middle, secondary and higher educational levels (Department of Education)
39 One of major drivers is growth in IT/ITES industry Top five IT companies spending US$ 500 million a year on education and training for their employeesMany established large training campuses for thisData Source: NASSCOM
41 Some key players, other than British Council British School of languages (BSL):Founded 1975Over 1.6 million students trained in spoken EnglishA network of 30 study centres across the countryCaters to a broad audience - from those who do not know English to those who aim to hone their English speaking skillsWorks in the corporate training sector – Ashok Leyland, Ranbaxy, American Express, U.N.O, Asian Paints are some of the clientsCourse fees range from Rs 2500 to Rs 3000
42 Some key players - contVeta English language training institute (formerly known as Vivekananda Institute):Founded 1981Over 2.2 million students trained in spoken EnglishA network of 200 study centres across the countrySome centres can accommodate more than 500 studentsVeta offers a ‘Self tutor’ pack for those learners who cannot access one of its centresSeven main programmes, including ‘Veta English Holiday’
44 Personal development + improved career prospects = key reasons for learning English Which of these, if any, best describes your reasons for wanting to learnEnglish/for wanting your child to learn English?Parents of current/ potential learnersAllAdult learners/ potential learnersTop mentionsPersonal developmentImproved career prospectsMany jobs now require employees to speak EnglishGeneral interest in learning EnglishTo meet new people/make to friendsTo communicate with friends in other countriesBase: All respondents, India (202), adult learner/potential learner (102), parent of current/potential learner (100)
45 Increased propensity to learn, esp among young Do you think you/your child are more likely or less likely to learn English (outside school) than you were 6 months ago?Less likelyDon’t know 2%No real difference compared to 6 months agoMore likelyMuch more likelyParent of current learner42%Parent of potential learner36%Adult potential learner33%Adult learner12%Base: All respondents, India (202), parent of potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), adult potential learner (52), adult learner (50)
46 Group tuition most used and most preferred In which of these ways, if any, would you prefer (your child) to learn English / are you/your child currently using to learn English (outside school) ?PreferredUsed by current learnersTop mentionsGroup or classroom tuitionOne-to-one tuition‘Teach Yourself’ guides – text bookOnline courses‘Teach Yourself’ guides – audio/visualBase: Preferred - All respondents, India (202), Current – All adult learners/parents of current learner, India (100))
47 Better quality teaching, credibility and UK English = key reasons Why do you say you/your child would study at a UK English language institute?Top mentions(71% of parents of current learners)Better quality teachingWill have more credibility with employers(56% of potential adult learners)Prefer to learn UK EnglishHave heard good things about UK providers from othersHave had a good experience in the pastHave a generally positiveImage of the UKBase: All likely to study at a UK ELT in the next 2-3 years, India (135), potential adult learner (36), parent of current learner (31)
48 Less than half would consider online learning How likely are you to consider learning English online in the next 2-3 years/choosing an online English learning course for your child?CertainToDon’t knowVery likelyCertain not to/ Very unlikely/Fairly unlikelyAdult learnerAdult potential learnerParent of current learner33%37%22%Parent of potential learner14%Certain not toVery unlikelyFairly likelyFairly unlikelyBase: All not currently learning English via an online course, India (199), adult learner (48(, adult potential learner (52), parent of current learner (49), parent of potential learner (50)
49 Few employees offered ELT at work Does your company offer English language courses for employees?Don’t know 1%I am unemployedYes 2%I am a studentNone are currently learning English using a training course provided by their employerJust 2% have ever done soNoBase: All current/potential adult learners, India (102)
50 UK materials the same or better than others Do you think that materials produced by UK organisations for English language learning are generally better or worse than those from other overseas organisations or are they about the same?Don’t knowBetterBetterAdult learnerAdult potential learner38%62%Parent of current learnerParent of potential learner56%40%About the sameBase: All respondents, India (202)
51 Ease of use & quality are strengths Why do you say you materials from UK organisations are better?Clearer/easier to useBetter quality/more reliablePrefer UK EnglishUK materials have a better reputationHave a generally positive image of the UKBase: All who think materials from UK organisations are better, India (99)
52 Four - English language teachers* * These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only
53 More and different opportunities required Teachers want:More seminars and training sessions on communicative language training – ie how best to teach students the basic skills they needBetter training in the area of student motivation/student psychologyMore on latest training techniques – ideally developed with their particular institution in mindTraining which keeps them up-to-date with the changing needs of a competitive worldOpportunities to meet counterparts in other institutions (eg in discussion forums)Guidance from experts“To train the teacher in this (communicative language training) is most important because having just patience is not enough”“Training in this (student motivation) is very important for any teacher. Only a motivated teacher can motivate his/her students”
54 Five - Leading employers* * These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only
55 Perfect English in new staff usually not expected Acknowledgement that some training may be required to improve skills, egTo correct errorsImprove pronunciationImprove understanding of other culturesImprove confidence in abilityLink language skills to requirements of the jobMost of those interviewed provide in-house training for relevant staff*; some for all staffParticularly call centres – structured training modules, debates, role-playing, grammar, telephone ethics“When the trainer takes the training and this person has grammatical issues, some people do have errors, the trainer helps them” (Retail)* The quantitative research shows very few employees say their company offers ELT training, no doubt because most work for smaller companies than those interviewed in the qualitative research.
56 Some do use external providers though Two of the five doSingle provider used – books, notes, CDs, online links and testsChosen on the basis of*:Cost (major role)Level of serviceCourse material (including multi-media)Expertise of trainerLevel of trust & commitment shownAbility to customise training to needsHigh levels of satisfaction“Any external body has to be customised to our requirements”“Someone who is outsourced is always approachable and they try to give you the best”* IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments – main factors in choice of trainer were course content, presentation skills, educational background, certifications of trainer and previous experience
58 Summary & implications - India Large and growing market for English language servicesWhile taught in all schools, interviews with teachers suggest it is not necessarily taught ‘well’.There are real opportunities for UK organisations to help teaching of English in schools through working with Universities, school boards, teacher-training and professional developmentPoor quality of learning in schools also means there is a strong and growing demand among learners, both adults and young learners, for ELT institutes
59 Summary & implications – India - cont The positive reputation of UK ELT and materials means UK organisation are well placed to capitalise on this demandUK organisations/materials associated with quality and high credibilityPotential barrier: Cost – need lower/higher cost optionsDemand for English skills at a corporate level is driven by service sector in particular (eg growth of call centres)Internet access is a key barrier – only 7% of population have access – as are limited opportunities to practice oral skillsHas wider implication for materials offered by UK organisations – need to offer hard copy as well as online learning materialsRapid adoption of mobile based access may change this though – so should be monitored carefully