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Motivation. Needs Theories of Motivation Needs -Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of an individual -Explain workplace behavior and attitudes.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation. Needs Theories of Motivation Needs -Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of an individual -Explain workplace behavior and attitudes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation

2 Needs Theories of Motivation Needs -Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of an individual -Explain workplace behavior and attitudes -Create tensions that influence attitudes and behavior -Good managers and leaders facilitate employee need satisfaction

3 Needs Theories of Motivation

4 Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs Self-actualization needs Creative and challenging work Participation in decision making Job flexibility and autonomy What satisfies higher-order needs Esteem needs Responsibility of an important job Promotion to higher status job Praise and recognition from boss

5 Social needs Friendly coworkers Interaction with customers Pleasant supervisor Safety needs Safe working conditions Job security Base compensation and benefits Physiological needs Rest and refreshment breaks Physical comfort on the job Reasonable work hours What satisfies lower-order needs?

6 Needs Theories of Motivation -Deficit principle A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior -Progression principle A need at one level does not become activated until the next lower – level need is satisfied

7 Needs Theories of Motivation ERG theory -Developed by clayton alderfer -three need levels Existence needs Desires for physiological and material well-being Relatedness needs Desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships Growth needs Desires for continued psychological growth and development

8 Needs Theories of Motivation Two-factor theory -Developed by frederick Herzberg -Hygiene factors: Elements of the job context Sources of job dissatisfaction -Satisfier factors: Elements of the job content Sources of job satisfaction and motivation

9 Herzberg’s two-factor theory Job DissatisfactionJob satisfaction Herzberg’s Two-factor principle Improving the motivator factors increases job satisfaction Improving the hygiene factors decreases job dissatisfaction Influenced by Hygiene Factors Working conditions Coworker relations Policies and rules Supervisor quality Base wage, salary Influenced by Motivator Factors Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work itself Advancement Personal growth

10 Needs Theories of Motivation Acquired needs theory -Need for achievement (nAch) Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks -People high in (nAch) prefer work that: Involves individual responsibility for results Involves achievable but challenging goals Provides feedback on performance

11 Process theories of motivation Equity theory -Developed by J. Stacy Adams -When people believe that they have been treated unfairly in comparison to others, they try to eliminate the discomfort and restore a perceived sense of equity to the situation Perceived inequity Perceived equity

12 Process theories of motivation Equity theory -People respond to perceived negative inequity by changing … Work inputs Rewards received Comparison points Situation

13 Process theories of motivation Expectancy theory -Developed by Victor Vroom -Key expectancy theory variables: Expectancy – belief that working hard will result in desired level of performance Instrumentality – belief that successful performance will be fallowed by rewards Valence _ value a person assigns to rewards and other work related outcomes

14 Elements in the expectancy theory of motivation Person exerts Work effort Work- related outcomes Task performance To achieve and realize Expectancy “Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?” Instrumentality “What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?” Valence “How highly do I value work outcomes?”

15 Process theories of motivation Goal-setting theory -Participation in goal setting Unlocks the motivational potential of goal setting Management by objective (MBO) promotes participation When participation is not possible, workers will respond positively if supervisory trust and support exist

16 Process theories of motivation Self-Efficacy Theory -A person’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task -Capability directly affects motivation Higher self-efficacy will have higher expectancy Self-efficacy is linked to performance goal setting

17 Process theories of motivation Self-Efficacy Theory -Enactive mastery Person gains confidence through positive experience -Vicarious modeling Learning by observing others -Verbal persuasion Encouragement from others that one can perform a task -Emotional arousal High stimulation or energy to perform well in a situation

18 Reinforcement theory Operant conditioning strategies: -Positive reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of a pleasant consequence -Negative reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an unpleasant consequence

19 Reinforcement theory Successful implementation of positive reinforcement is based on -Law of contingent reinforcement- Reward delivered only if desired behavior is exhibited -Law of immediate reinforcement- More immediate the delivery of a reward, the more reinforcement value it has

20 Schedules of reinforcement: -Continuous reinforcement administers a reward each time a desired behavior occurs -Intermittent reinforcement rewards behavior only periodically -Acquisition of behavior is quicker with continuous reinforcement -Behavior acquired under an intermittent schedule is more permanent -Shaping is the creation of a new behavior by positive reinforcement of successive approximations to it


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