Presentation on theme: "What is ‘good practice’ in teaching an additional language?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What is ‘good practice’ in teaching an additional language? Richard Johnstone Milan, March 2011
2 Overview Introduction What is ‘good practice’ in teaching? Conclusions Teaching an additional language at primary schoolThree models of Languages EducationFactors and OutcomesWhat is ‘good practice’ in teaching?How might we recognize ‘good practice’?Some examplesConclusions
3 Three models of Languages Education at primary school MLPSLimited amount of time / Variety of starting agesMain aims are to teach initial aspects of the additional language and associated culturesBy far, the dominant model across the worldCLILTeaching one or two subjects (or aspects of subjects) througth the medium of the additional languageMore time (e.g % of time overall)Strongly endorsed by European CommissionBILINGUAL/ IMMERSION EDUCATIONConsiderably more time (Minimally 40% of time overall)A range of underlying deep societal aims
4 Factors and Outcomes SOCIETAL PROVISION PROCESS INDIVIDUAL OUTCOMES Exposure to TLBusiness NeedTimeIntensityTeachingInstructionAgeLiteraciesPlurilingual proficiencyDominance of EnglishInformationInnovationLearningAcquisitionEthnicityPrior languagesProficiency in a particular languageTreatment by the mediaPlace of Ls in the curriculumProblem-solvingNetworkingGenderPrior attainmentsExaminationAttainmentsInternetGlobalisation / LocalisationSupply, Training and CPD of teachersCommunicationInteractionSocio-economic backgroundIdentitySense of selfTransferable skillsPolitical willParental DemandTeacher clusters and networksAssessmentEvaluationAttitudes and MotivationCitizenshipMobilityAttitudes to particular languages and communitiesPolicies and support (transnational / national / local)PlanningManagementAdministrationPersonalityCognitive styleLearning strategyAutonomyIntercultural competenceEU citizenship (e.g. basic right to mobility)Infrastructure for continuity across sectorsDevelopmentResearchConfidenceAnxietySelf-esteemTeachersJob satisfactionCareer prospectsFast capitalism / elite bilingualismFund-raisingProfile-raisingValuesBeliefsSchoolsEthos&ReputationPerformance
5 BEP (SPAIN) KEY POSITIVE FACTORS SOCIETALPROVISIONPROCESSPolitical willParental interest & demand for EBEiEBut pupils had very limited contact with English outside schoolAn early start (in some cases from age 3)Substantial time for English (40%)Leadership at national level from Ministry & British Council togetherSupernumerary teachers fluent in EnglishAgreed continuity across primary and secondary educationSupportive national Guidelines on BEP curriculumIn-service courses for teachersHighly reputable external international examination for students at age 16General teaching strategiesLanguage-focused strategiesActivities which offer students cognitive challenge, integrating their knowledgeCreation of community atmosphere in classUse of assessment in support of learningManagement approach based on consultation and collaboration
6 What is ‘good practice’ in teaching a ML? Doing things which are considered to be ‘good’‘As a teacher, I am implementing a communicative approach’‘I am using the Council of Europe Portfolio’‘I am developing a learner-centred approach’‘I am developing intercultural competence’‘I am introducing CLIL ’BUTAlthough these things are probably ‘good’, and I have observed some excellent teaching based on themI have also observed some unimpressive teaching based on themSo ‘good practice’ should also minimally imply ...... Doing these things well!
7 Recognizing ‘good practice’ Doing these things well .....Yes, we can look at how well the teacher performs certain activitiesBut we should also make judgements about good practice in teaching by observing closely its actual effects on pupils/studentsWhat were pupils doing really well?What teacher behaviours seemed associated with this? (BEP Evaluation, Spain)
8 Three components of ‘good practice’ .2.Doing them well / skilfully / smoothly /coherently / responsively1.Implementing activities which are desirable3.Taking careful account of effects on pupils / studentsIn the BEP evaluation, we worked from 3. to 2. to 1.
9 BEP STUDY 1: Primary 5 & 6 pupils’ performance and attainments in classrooms Fluent and confident command of English, including technical vocabularyProduction of extended utterancesGeneral ease of comprehension and of interaction with the teacherA range of language functions to express the discourse of science and English language & literacy lessons.Some errors but these seemed developmental and not to detract from pupils’ generally promising performance.
10 Specialized vocabulary to cope with particular content areas: e.g. BEP STUDY 3: Secondary 2 students’ performance and attainments in classFluent and confident use of language reflecting students’ maturing cognitive capacities.Specialized vocabulary to cope with particular content areas: e.g.‘fertilisation’, ‘characteristics of predators’, ‘acids & alkalis’Range of language functions, related to English (language & literacy) and Science: e.g.providing explanations; coping in an interview; improvising; making a presentation; elaborating the consequences of particular processes; constructing their own argumentsRange of social and task-related purposes: e.g.banter; peer-support; conducting experiments
11 BEP STUDY 5: Infants and early primary The lessons observed show substantial progression from age 3 to age 7 in pupils’ learning and language development:Initially, their activity was based on actions, songs, chants, games, objects and visualsBy Year 2 of primary school they had moved into the use of English for doing science in the form of studying the environment:Generated longer utterances in response to technical questionsSome degree of verbal reasoningPronunciation generally very goodHigh speed of comprehension and an ability to demonstrate this quickly through actions and mimesThe teachers were generally pleasant, calm, organized and encouraging. Their English was good, as was their planning and organization. They had high expectations of their pupils.
12 BEP Primary 5/6 performance in class T: ‘What happens when you have a cold?’P: ‘Mucus goes through the Eustachian tube into the middle ear.’T: ‘How does the doctor know this if he cannot see into the middle ear?’P: ‘He sees a change in the position of the eardrum.’
13 BEP Primary 5/6 performance in class ‘If a liquid is not in a container, it will spill (spread) out.’ (boy)‘If we pour a liquid from one container to another, it changes shape’(boy)‘If you put the water from the jar into the beaker, it will take the shape of the new container. The shape of the water change’ (sic).‘We can see that solids can be different. They have different volume and matter’ (girl)
14 BEP Primary 5/6 performance in class ‘We know that light travels in straight lines because ……… behind the opaque object, you cannot see the light, only the shadow. When you put a bottle or glass in front of a source of light, the light travels through it’.
15 BEP Good Practice: General Teaching Keeps all pupils involved in the lessonChecks pupils’ outputsIs willing to collaborate with colleaguesIs firm but pleasantUses visual aidsGives clear explanations of what pupils are to doReviews pupil outputs with the whole classGives clear guidelines for use of ICT in classKeeps pupils’ attention focusedAvoids spoon-feedingPresents tasks in a clear and interesting wayKeeps a log of mistakes for subsequent commentChooses websites which are appropriate and comprehensibleHelps pupils work out their own solutionsExudes ‘presence’
16 BEP Good Practice: More language-focused Helps pupils focus on linguistic form as well as function and meaning Pays due attention to accuracy, especially where meaning would otherwise be compromisedIntroduces deliberate mistakes for pupils to identify and correctHelps pupils focus on key wordsHelps pupils develop clear definitions Helps them describe the properties of thingsHelps them make contrasts, e.g. …. whereas ….. Helps them develop robust classificationsHelps them develop use of the passive voice, essential for sciencePupils have to extend their utterances by using additional vocabularyColour-codes in order to highlight particular types of word, e.g. verbsAllows judicious use of Spanish
17 CHILDREN’S MOTIVATION: ACTIVITIES Wu (2003) studied children aged 5 learning Englishprimary school in Hong Kong, monolingual Cantoneseclassroom activities which fostered intrinsic motivationThese includeda predictable learning environment,moderately challenging tasks,necessary instructional support,evaluation that emphasises self-improvementattribution of success or failure to variables that the learner can do something about.
18 L1 / L2 within one overall system Primary Year 1& 2Introduction of some 30 language concepts in the national languagePrimary Year 3 & 4These same concepts systematically transferred into the learning of a foreign languageInitially for recognition / comprehension, then for productionPupils used these concepts in order to monitor their own spontaneous oral production and to plan and then monitor their own spontaneous and planned written productionOutcomesSpoken and written output that was fluent, creative and accurate
19 EARLY READINGMertens (2003) found that children in Grade 1 learning Frenchbenefited from being introduced to written French immediatelyshowed results superior to those in purely oral approachesVickov (2007) claims that children at Grade 1 in Croatia werenot disadvantaged in their writing in Croatian by being introduced to writing in English.Dlugosz (2000) found that the introduction of reading in the foreign language at kindergarteneven when reading in the first language was also only just startinghelped speed the process of understanding and speaking the foreign language.
20 PROGRESSION: UPS & DOWNS Mitchell (2003) claims that second language learning isnot like climbing a ladder; but isa complex and recursive process with multiple interconnections and backslidings, andcomplex trade-offs between advances in fluency, accuracy and complexity.Pelzer-Karpf & Zangl (1997) found that children’s utterances seemed impressive in Years 1&2but then in Year 3 went through a phase of ‘Systemturbulenz’ in which their grammar control seemed to fall apartwhen the cognitive demands of their tasks were raised to the point that temporarily their grammar-systems could not fully copeBut by Year 4 it sorted itself out.
21 CREATIVITY AND ACCURACY Lyster (2004) studied ‘form-focused instruction’ (FFI) and ‘corrective feedback’ (CF) with Grade 5 children.FFI and CF were found to be more successful than an approach based on no-FFI and no-CFRecasts: an example of no-FFI & no CFWhat did you do yesterday evening?I watch televisionOh, you watched television?YesHe also found it useful to encourage pupils in ‘noticing’ particular formal features of the target languageThis helped them develop an awareness of language and to refine their internalised language systems as they progressed
22 Thinking of introducing CLIL or EBE Not to be undertaken lightlyThink carefully about it and analyze your own situationWhat are the key societal / provision / process factors I must take into account in my context, in order to make a good start?In particular, think of teacher supply, teacher CPD and provision of appropriate materialsConsult staff, parents and relevant authoritiesInform yourselves + staff + parents about what CLIL and EBE are and requirePlan for sustainabilitySeek to develop ICT and other contactsJoint projects / intercultural learning / exposure to wider range of L2 models
23 CONCLUSION: SUCCESSFUL LEARNER Plans, practices, revisesReviews, Self-assessesProcesses input, e.g. notices, guesses, infers, predictsSeeks opportunities to use the additional language ‘for real’Seeks feedback: negative as well as positiveRelates learning & use of the additional language to the learning of other thingsUses reference material appropriatelyInteracts and negotiates meaning, e.g. probes, seeks clarificationOffers help, seeks helpTakes personal responsibilityIs aware of and manages different types of discourseProduces spontaneous as well as non-spontaneous outputFocuses on form as well as on meaning, at different timesControls anxiety and uses this productivelyFeels confident, self-efficaciousSeeks underlying patternPays attention, focuses attention, sustains attentionDevelops strategies, uses these and reflects on / revises themSelf-motivates, self-rewards, is curious and seeks challenges…… Other?
24 REFERENCESChesterton, P., Steigler-Peters, S., Moran, W. & Piccioli, M. T. (2004). Developing sustainable language learning pathways: an Australian initiative. Language, Culture & Curriculum, 17, 1, balance. Windsor: NFER Publishing.Dlugosz, D.W. (2000). Rethinking the role of reading in teaching a foreign language to young learners. ELT Journal, 54 3,Edelenbos, P., Johnstone R. M. & Kubanek, A. (2006). The main pedagogical principles underlying the teaching of languages to very young learners. Languages for the children of Europe: Published Research, Good Practice & Main Principles. Brussels, European Commission.European Commission. (2003). Promoting language learning and linguistic diversity: an Action Plan Brussels: European CommissionJohnstone, R. M. ( Addressing 'the age factor': some implications for languages policy. Guide for the development of Language Education Policies in Europe - From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Reference Study
25 REFERENCES (continued) Lyster, R. (2004a). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26,Lyster, R. (2004b). Research on form-focused instruction in immersion classrooms: implications for theory and practice. Journal of French Language Studies, 14, 3,Mertens, J. (2003). Rhythm, rhymes and rules. Vom Nutzen der Schrift (nicht nur) beim frühen Englischlernen. Fremdsprachenunterricht, 47 (56) 3,Mitchell, R. (2003). Rethinking the concept of progression in the national curriculum for modern foreign languages: a research perspective. Language Learning Journal, Winter 2003.Peltzer-Karpf, A. & Zangl, R. (1997). Vier Jahre Vienna Bilingual Schooling: Eine angzeitstudie. Vienna; Bundesministerium für Unterricht und kulturelle Angelegenheiten., Abteilung 1/1.Vrhovac, Y. (Ed.) (2010. Introducing the European Language Portfolio in the Croatian and French foreign language classroom: teachers’ experiences and classroom activities with 8 to 14 year-olds. University of Zagreb: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.Vickov, G. (2007) Pisanje na engleskom u prvom razredu osnovne skole (Writing skills in English in the first Grade of primary school), Stranijezici.Wu, X. (2003). Intrinsic motivation and young language learners: the impact of the classroom environment. System, 31 4,
26 SUCCESSFUL ELL TEACHING: 1 Planning:Seeking to develop not only AL proficiency but also broader aims, e.g. citizenship, intercultural learning, social skillsCollaborating and joint planning with other colleagues in the school, with parents and with teachers in secondary schoolsPlanning long-term for sustainability, as well as short-term for successAdopting an inclusive approach, bringing encouragement, emotional warmth appropriate support to all pupilsUnderstanding that true progression in a language is not based on the ‘ladder’ model but is a more complex and recursive process.Building on children’s first language, whatever that may be, helping them to develop explicit conceptual knowledge of this which is then transferred systematically to the additional language they are learning.
27 SUCCESSFUL ELL TEACHING: 2 Providing:a clear example to pupils of oneself as an enthusiastic, though by no means perfect, AL learner and userencouragement, sustained and varied input, interaction, feedback, a supportive learning environment and guidancea challenge which stimulates pupils’ interest and curiositycorrective as well as positive feedback, while ensuring that this does not undermine confidence or self-esteemopen-ended questions and stimuli, encouraging children to be free and creative.
28 SUCCESSFUL ELL TEACHING: 3 Encouraging learners:to be strategic &reflective, to engage in self-assessment & self- monitoringto begin reading, writing from an early stageto draw holistically on their range of capacities and senses, e.g. physical movement, sense of shape, colour, gesture …..to derive motivation from feelings of pleasure and success in what they are attempting to doto focus on the structure of different kinds of discourse, e.g. conversations, stories, reports, essays, letters …to develop skills of predicting, guessing and making inferencesto reflect on and explore the rich diversity of human language and the immense linguistic potential that each of us possesses
29 KEEPING A PORTFOLIOShort statements of what learners think they can doI can explain … a game, a recipe, how to make somethingI can narrate/tell … an experience, a story, a filmI can say … what I like/dislike, and explain whyI can speak/talk about … my friends, familyI can read … an illustrated children’s bookI can find … in a text what I am looking forPersonal diary of occasions outside school when the learner used the target languageBrief discussion of language-learning problems encountered, and of solutions which the learner has found….. Other?
30 Portfolio: impact on pupils The Portfolio offers an opportunity for the teacher to continuously follow and assess the pupils’ achievements; it motivates pupils to use the foreign language, and develops their awareness of the need to take responsibility for their learning and performance.It helps pupils to consciously follow the development of their overall language and communication competence.Teachers see that pupils, with their help, can independently and with full responsibility do the tasks, prepare their language production, think about it, and decide what they have done well, and what could be improved, and finally, assess their own performance.Vrhovac et al (2010)
31 CHILDREN’S INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: DEVELOPMENT Nikolov (1999) followed three cohorts of childrenfor eight years, taught by the same teacherIt was found thatlearners’ motivation could be maintained by intrinsically interesting and cognitively challenging tasksIntrinsic motivationInitially associated with ‘fun’ activityThen becomes linked to ‘curiosity’ and ‘challenge’Then becomes associated with perception of self as successful language learner
32 PROCESSES: PEER-TUTORING Xu, Gelper & Perkins (2005) studied class-wide peer-tutoring (CWPT)Children at elementary school Grade 2 in the United StatesRegular instances of:cooperative playreciprocal initiation & response.The researchers concluded that:CWPT had significantly helped the children in their social behaviour.Reference:Xu, Y., J. Gelfer & P. Perkins. (2005). Using peer-tutoring to increase social interactions in early schooling. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 1,
33 PROCESSES: COMPUTER-MEDIATED Nutta et al (2002) compareda conventional text-based approach with a computer-enhanced multimedia approach, pupils Grades 2-5 in a USA elementary school.The computer-enhanced group:more interactivegreater access to immediate feedbackmore precise in pronunciationsmoother flow of readingproduced larger chunks of language.Concluded that:ICT can help younger learners in integrating their languages skills and in developing important strategies of monitoring.Reference:Nutta, J. et. al. (2002). Exploring new frontiers: What do computers contribute to teaching foreign languages in elementary school? Foreign Language Annals, 35 , 3,
34 KEY MLPS FACTOR: CONTINUITY It works well when across the two sectors (Primary- Secondary) there is the following:exchange of information and supportreciprocal visitscollaborative planningmutual esteemLarge-scale project in New South Wales,Australia: Chesterton et al (2004)Joint planning by teachers covering 3 years at Primary School and 2 years at Secondary School