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Organizational Behavior 15th Ed Organizational Culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall16-1 Robbins and Judge Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior 15th Ed Organizational Culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall16-1 Robbins and Judge Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior 15th Ed Organizational Culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall16-1 Robbins and Judge Chapter 16

2 Chapter 16 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1.Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics. 2.Compare the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization. 3.Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture. 4.Show how culture is transmitted to employees. 5.Demonstrate how an ethical culture can be created. 6.Describe a positive organizational culture. 7.Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture. 8.Show how national culture may affect the way organizational culture is transported to a different country. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall16-2

3 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-3 LO 1 1

4 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics Research identifies seven primary characteristics that capture the essence of an organization’s culture: –Innovation and risk taking. –Attention to detail. –Outcome orientation. –People orientation. –Team orientation. –Aggressiveness. –Stability. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-4 LO 1 1

5 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-5 LO 1 1

6 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics Other research has conceptualized culture into four different types based on competing values. –One is the collaborative and cohesive clan. –Two is the innovative and adaptable adhocracy. –Three is the controlled and consistent hierarchy. –Four is the competitive and customer focused market. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-6 LO 1 1

7 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Research questions: –Does it encourage teamwork? –Does it reward innovation? –Does it stifle initiative? It differs from job satisfaction –Job satisfaction is evaluative. –Organizational culture is descriptive. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-7 LO 1 1

8 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics Most organizations have a dominant culture and numerous sets of subcultures. Subcultures tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems, situations, or experiences that members face. Strong culture: A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared. Core values: The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-8 LO 1 1

9 Define organizational culture and describe its common characteristics High formalization creates predictability, orderliness, and consistency. Formalization and culture are two different roads to a common destination. The stronger an organization’s culture, the less management needs to develop formal rules and regulations. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-9 LO 1 1

10 Compare the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization Culture’s Functions –Boundary-defining role –Conveys a sense of identity for members –Facilitates the generation of commitment –Enhances the stability of the social system –Serves as a sense-making and control mechanism –Guides and shapes attitudes and behavior of employees Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 2 1

11 Compare the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization Today’s trend toward decentralized organizations makes culture more important than ever, but ironically it also makes establishing a strong culture more difficult. Individual-organization “fit”—that is, whether the applicant’s or employee’s attitudes and behavior are compatible with the culture— strongly influences who gets a job offer, a favorable performance review, or a promotion. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 2 1

12 Compare the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization Organizational climate is shared perceptions about the organization and work environment. Factors of climate has been studied, which include safety, justice, diversity, and customer service. Climates can interact with one another to produce behavior. Climate also influences the habits people adopt. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 2 1

13 Compare the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization Culture as a Liability: Institutionalization Barriers to Change Barriers to Diversity Barriers to Acquisitions and Mergers Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 2 1

14 Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture How a Culture Begins –Ultimate source of an organization’s culture is its founders. –Founders have vision of what the organization should be. –Unconstrained by previous ideologies or customs. –New organizations are typically small; facilitates the founders’ imparting of their vision on all organizational members. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 3 1

15 Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture Culture creation occurs in three ways: –Founders hire employees who feel the way they do. –Employees are indoctrinated and socialized into the founders’ way of thinking. –Founders’ behaviors act as role models. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 3 1

16 Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture Sustain Through Selection –The explicit goal of the selection process is to identify and hire individuals with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform successfully. Top Management –The actions of top management also have a major impact on the organization’s culture. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 3 1

17 Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 3 1

18 Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 3 1

19 Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 3 1

20 Show how culture is transmitted to employees Culture is transmitted to employees through –Stories, –Rituals, –Material symbols, and –Language. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 4 1

21 Demonstrate how an ethical culture can be created Characteristics shaping high ethical standards: –High in risk tolerance –Low to moderate in aggressiveness –Focuses on means as well as outcomes Managers are –Supported for taking risks and innovating, –Discouraged from unbridled competition, and –Guided to not just what is achieved but also how. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 5 1

22 Demonstrate how an ethical culture can be created If the culture is strong and supports high ethical standards, it should have a very powerful and positive influence on employee behavior. The negative consequences of a systematic culture of unethical behavior can be severe and include customer boycotts, fines, lawsuits, and government regulation of an organization’s practices. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 5 1

23 Demonstrate how an ethical culture can be created How can management create a more ethical culture? –Be a visible role model. –Communicate ethical expectations. –Provide ethical training. –Reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones. –Provide protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 5 1

24 Describe a positive organizational culture There is a trend today for organizations to attempt to create a positive organizational culture. A positive organizational culture emphasizes building on employee strengths, rewards more than it punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality growth. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 6 1

25 Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture What Is Spirituality? –Workplace spirituality is not about organized religious practices. It is not about God or theology. –Workplace spirituality recognizes that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 7 1

26 Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 7 1

27 Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture The concept of workplace spirituality draws on our previous discussions of values, ethics, motivation, and leadership. Spiritual organizations include: –Benevolence. –Strong sense of purpose. –Trust and respect. –Open-mindedness. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 7 1

28 Show how national culture may affect the way organizational culture is transported to a different country Organizational cultures often reflect national culture. One of the primary things U.S. managers can do is to be culturally sensitive. The management of ethical behavior is one area where national culture can rub up against corporate culture. U.S. employees are not the only ones who need to be culturally sensitive. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall LO 8 1

29 Summary and Implications for Managers Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

30 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall16-30 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall


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