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Spinach Production in West Central Michigan James Breinling: Michigan State University Extension Veggie School Thursday, February 26, 2004 Jim Breinling,Michigan.

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Presentation on theme: "Spinach Production in West Central Michigan James Breinling: Michigan State University Extension Veggie School Thursday, February 26, 2004 Jim Breinling,Michigan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spinach Production in West Central Michigan James Breinling: Michigan State University Extension Veggie School Thursday, February 26, 2004 Jim Breinling,Michigan State University Extension

2 Brief Background Interest in processed frozen spinach Spring of growers planted Summer of plantings in Mason/Oceana counties - approx. 80 acres Decision - not to harvest - over winter Potential for expansion

3 Planting of Spinach in Mason County, Oct. 13, 2003

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6 About the same time last Sept.- Oct. Found on a web site National Spinach Conference November 20 & Fayetteville, Arkansas Vegetable AoE - Growing the Michigan Vegetable Industry $2,000 grant - myself and three other growers attended

7 1st Day of Meetings at Washington County Extension Office What did we learn? Spinach is good for you - Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Iron - Antioxidant activity - Folic Acid & disease-prevention properties - Age-related Macular Degeneration - Bottom-line - eat more spinach! Why? For all the above reasons…. its good for you!

8 Herbicides Issues Nilda Burgos - Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences at University of Arkansas Need for additional herbicides critical 3 registered in Arkansas - cycloate (Ro-Neet), sethoxydim (Poast), and phenmedipham (Spin-aid) - metolachlor (Dual) preemergence; Sec. 18, many years - Exploring herbicide resistance by whole plant selection

9 Herbicides Issues (con.) - started fall of cultivars -.5 and 1.0x rates of glyphoste (Roundup) and glufosenate (Liberty) - a few plants survived study spinach tolerance to imazamox (Raptor) - Raptor labeled cowpea - rotation with spinach - rates highly injurious when applied preemergence - lower rates need to be tested - Spinach cultivars show differential tolerance to foliar application of Raptor

10 Potential Herbicides - Spinach Texas the Oklahoma Russell Wallace - CES, Texas A&M Bixby, Oklahoma highest yielding preemergence treatments - Lorox (0.10 lb. a.i/A) - Ro-Neet (3.0 lb. a.i) & Lorox (0.05 lb. a.i) - Define (0.15 lb. a.i) & Lorox (0.05 lb. a.i) Crystal City, Texas - Ro-Neet, Dual Magnum and Outlook alone had least crop injury - Best combination included: Ro-Neet (3.0 or 4.0 lb. a.i) and Outlook (0.25 lb. a.i) Ro-Neet (3.0 or 4.0 lb. a.i) and Lorox (0.05 or 0.10 lb. a.i) Outlook (0.25 lb. a.i) and Lorox (0.05 or o.10 lb. a.i) Results look promising, need more investigation regarding rates and and combinations

11 Other topics Update on Downy Mildew of Spinach Biology and Management Spinach White Rust Verticillium Wilt of Spinach Foliar Fungicide Alternatives in Spinach Screening and Breeding for Resistance to Leafminer in spinach Current and Future Insect Management in Spinach and Greens Spinach Breeding in the Mid South

12 Spinach Insect Pests and Controls Paul McLeod, Department of Entomology at U. of A. Aphids - Green Peach Aphid - Scout weeks prior to harvest - 20 plants - threshold average 5/plant - Control - imidacloprid Grasshoppers - Spinach spring and fall green islands - Pyrethroid insecticides - Other controls; location of field, bug knockers

13 What we saw - Fri. Nov. 21, 2003 Trip to University of Arkansas - Vegetable Substation - Kibler, Arkansas Spinach Variety Trail - Focus White Rust Resistance - 39 selections - 5 Tiers - Flat Leaf F-380, XP Semi Savoy - Padre - Full Savoy - Ozarka II

14 Spinach variety trial, U. of A. Kibler Substation

15 Du-All; seed bed preparation; U. of A.

16 White Rust on spinach - underside of leaf

17 White Rust on spinach - top of leaf

18 St. Helens, spinach variety trial, Nov. 21, weeks after planting

19 Greens harvest at Newton Farms; Kibler, AR

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23 Returned to U. of A. Vegetable Substation

24 Dual damage on spinach leaf

25 Raptor resistance plots

26 Visit to Gist Farms Spiro, Oklahoma Sat. Nov. 22, ,000 acres - Sharecropping 800 acres Spinach and Greens, also grow acreage of Snap Beans Harvesting of Greens and Spinach Overwinter plantings of spinach

27 Growers pose during inspection of spinach planter

28 Close up - one of three planter units

29 Three ten row beds - note, roller in front

30 Over winter spinach, Gist Farms, Nov. 22, 2003

31 Roller used to level spinach beds

32 So after all that, what did we really learn... Need # of sulfur /A in the form of ammonium sulfate - reduce need of nitrogen Plant on heavier soil types - ph level important min. Can increase plant population / acre - more rows to drilling Proper seedbed preparation - 4 times w/ Du-all in Oklahoma shallow seeding - use of pop up fertilizer

33 So after all that, what did we really learn….. (con.) Roll after planting, roll overwinter plantings in spring to level Spintor for control of leafminer 2 days prior to harvest Use 2-3 varieties - flat leaf types grow faster than some savoy and full savoy yield goal - 7 to 8 ton/acre Stomp spinach, pack tight 40,000 lb.+ per load - 70° and lower, Oklahoma up to 3 days - cut early mornings or evenings - if over 80° - problems


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