85% Achievements and prospects for meeting MDG target 1 LATIN AMERICA (17 COUNTRIES): PROGRESS IN REDUCING EXTREME POVERTY BETWEEN 1990 AND 2008 (Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a The percentage of progress is calculated by dividing the reduction (or increase) in indigence, expressed in percentage points, observed in the period by half of the indigence rate for 1990. The broken lines represent the percentage of progress expected by 2008 (72%). The figures reflect a projection to 2008 for those countries whose most recent surrey is earlier than that year. b Urban areas. MDG-1 T-1A The region has made 85% of the gains necessary to meet the target, in 72% of the time allotted (18 of 25 years). If the rate of progress seen between 1990 and 2008 continues, Latin America will be on track to meet the target of halving extreme poverty The crisis has placed that achievement in jeopardy Less progress (63%) was made in reducing total poverty and the region is less likely to meet this more demanding target.
For the first time in the history of the region there were improvements in equality MDG-1 T-1A Besides growth, the decrease in poverty rates in the region was also stimulated by improvements in income distribution It is the first time in the history of the region that there are improvements in equality indicators The Gini Index improved between 3% and 10% in 10 out of 20 countries Income in poor households improved 20% (equalize to grow)
Some 190 million people are thought to be living in poverty in 2009, and 101 million of them are benefiting from CRTPs. There is therefore still room for extending the programmes and covering more families that are unable to meet their basic needs on their own. LATIN AMERICA (17 COUNTRIES): COVERAGE OF CO-RESPONSIBILITY TRANSFER PROGRAMMES (CRTPs), 2006-2009 (Percentage of indigent and poor population) a Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys and official information from the relevant countries. a The ratio of CRTPs coverage to the indigent and poor population does not take into account errors of inclusion and exclusion. Percentage of indigent population Percentage of poor population MDG-1 T-1A
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (30 COUNTRIES): PROGRESS MADE IN REDUCING UNDERNUTRITION BETWEEN 1990-1992 AND 2004-2006 (Percentages of progress towards the target) The region produces 40% more food than its population needs, yet 45 million people lacked sufficient food in 2004-2006 MDG-1 T-1C Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World, various years [date of reference: 23 November 2009]. a Estimate on the basis of data from 2001-2003. b Information from ECLAC, Social Panorama of Latin America, 2008 (LC/G.2402-P), Santiago, Chile, 2008. c Average weighted by the population.
PROGRESS IN ACHIEVING PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK MDG 1 TARGET 1B
Between 1990 and 2008, the region showed gains in three of the four employment target indicators. The exception is labour productivity, which has experience slow and volatile growth LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: TRENDS IN INDICATORS FOR MONITORING THE EMPLOYMENT TARGET, 1990/1992-2008 MDG-1 T-1B Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of household surveys conducted in the relevant countries, and United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators [online] a/ 26 countries, simple average, b/ 18 countries, weighted average, c/ 13 countries, simple average, d/ 13 countries, simple average.
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (36 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES): NET ENROLMENT RATIO FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL AND GENDER PARITY INDEX, 2007-2008 a, b (Percentages and percentage ratios) The region overall has achieved good access to primary schooling, but difficulties persist in the progression and completion of the cycle MDG-2 T-2A Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) [online] http://www.uis.unesco.org. a Adjusted net enrolment ratio. b/ Data for Netherlands Antilles correspond to 2003; for Argentina and Turks and Caicos Island to 2005; and for Anguilla and Paraguay to 2006.
Secondary education: a more demanding target, but a necessary one MDG-2 T-2A LATIN AMERICA (19 COUNTRIES): YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 20 TO 24 WHO HAVE COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION AND GENDER PARITY INDEX, AROUND 2008 AND IMPROVEMENT SINCE 1990 a (Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a/ Improvement over the closest year available to 1990.
Examples of best practices in education MDG-2 T-2A The Yes I Can literacy programme In Argentina, from 2003-2007: 500 literacy centers throughout the country, 3,500 students and over 6000 graduates The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela declared itself an illiteracy-free" territory in 2005 following the implementation of the programme and some 1,482,543 adults learned to read and write The Abrazo programme in Paraguay In 2008, 1,150 boys and girls alternated between an open centre and school and 795 families were provided with support. As a result, 75% of the boys and girls enlisted in the programme stopped working in the streets; 25% spent fewer hours in the street; and more than 500 families benefited from income- generating alternatives and micro-credit. National strategies to incorporate ICTs into the educationa systems of the region Costa Rica was the first country to initiate a policy for ICTs in schools in 1988 Chile introduced Red Enlaces at the beginning of the 1990s In the second half of the 1990s, Brazil created ProInfo and Mexico Red Escolar, with an emphasis on the educational use of computers and the internet to support curricula In 2000, Argentina created Educar, the first national public educational portal in Latin America. This example was quickly replicated in other countries. Most, if not all Latin American countries have gradually implemented some sort of policy on ICTs in schools Uruguays CEIBAL Plan Venezuela recently adopted Portugals Proyecto Magallanes
PROGRESS TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: WOMENS PARTICIPATION, AUTONOMY AND EMPOWERMENT MDG 3 TARGET 3A
Economic autonomy The capacity to generate own income and control assets and resources Physical autonomy Control over ones body Bears a close relationship to fulfilment of the new target relating to sexual and reproductive health: Maternal mortality Psychological, physical and sexual violence Unmet family planning needs Adolescent fertility Increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among women Participation in decision-making Full participation in the decisions that affect their lives and their community Types of autonomy Three pillars of gender equality and paritary citizenship MDG-3 T-3A
The parity index reveals that gender equity is not an issue with respect to education MDG-3 T-3A LATIN AMERICA (18 COUNTRIES): GIRL TO BOY ENROLMENT RATIO BY LEVEL OF SCHOOLING, 2007 (Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) on the basis of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Women in parliament MDG-3 T-3A Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database (2009), website of the Statistics and Economic Projections Division, http://millenniumindicators,un,org last updated: 14 July 2009, and information provided by the Inter-Parliamentary Union: http://www,ipu,org/wmn-e/world,htmhttp://millenniumindicators,un,org LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: PROPORTION OF SEATS HELD BY WOMEN IN NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS, 2009 (Percentages)
PROGRESS TOWARDS FULFILLING THE RIGHT TO HEALTH MDGs 4, 5 AND 6
On average, the region has been making strides towards reducing child mortality, but many countries will fall short of the target MDG-4 T-4A LATIN AMERICA (36 COUNTRIES): CHILD MORTALITY RATES, 1990 AND 2009 (Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of child mortality rates estimated by the Latin American and Caribbean Demographic Centre (CELADE) / Population Division of ECLAC and data from the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision (online).
MDG-5 T-5A The countries of the region have made scant progress in reducing maternal mortality LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (26 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES): MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS, AROUND 2005 a Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Health Situation in the Americas: Basic indicators, 2007 and 2009. a Given the small number of deaths, the ratio for some countries does not conform to standards of reliability and precision. Ratios given only for countries with more than 10,000 births per year.
New target 5B: achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health MDG-5 T-5B High coverage of prenatal care, which is not always reflected in low levels of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality High and increasing levels of adolescent fertility The unmet demand for family planning is now lower in the vast majority of countries. Nevertheless, since access to contraceptives is the main factor, social gaps still exist in this area Gaps in access to sexual education, modern contraceptive methods and services, with considerable inequalities depending on level of education, place of residence and ethnic and racial background
MDG-6 T-6A,B LATIN AMERICA THE CARIBBEAN HIV/AIDS rates have stabilized and universal access to antiretroviral treatment is possible, yet HIV is still a leading cause of death, particularly in the Caribbean LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: ESTIMATES OF THE INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS, 1990-2008 Source: UNAIDS/WHO, 2009.
MDG-6 T-6C Towards the eradication of Malaria in Suriname: a success story MALARIA CASES IN SURINAME, 1999-2008 MALARIA MORTALITY RATE IN SURINAME Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of Government of Suriname (2009), MDG Progress Report 2009, Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation/General Bureau of Statistic, November 2009.
PROGRESS TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY MDG 7
MDG-7 T-7A Consumption of ozone-depleting substances has diminished considerably LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (29 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES): CHANGE IN CONSUMPTION OF OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ODS), 1990-2007 (Tons of ozone depletion potential (ODP) and percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database [online]
Advances and challenges in reaching MDG7 Advances The consumption of ozone depleting substances has decreased significantly The total coverage of protected areas has grown steadily over the last decade The region has made progress in expanding the coverage of drinking water and sanitation services Challenges The area covered by forests is decreasing in LAC. The deforestation rate is double the global rate (-6.97% v. -3.07% respectively). CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement production increased steadily. The bulk of CO2 emissions in the region are generated by land-use change. There is a lack of reliable information on specific issues essential to the region, such as water resources management, fisheries and endangered species. A systematic survey of information is needed. While the number of people living in slums declined in the period under analysis, the region is still home to more than 100 million people living in unacceptable conditions. ODM-7 M-7A, B, C, D
MDG-7 T-7C DRINKING WATER SANITATION The region has also made progress in expanding coverage of drinking water and sanitation services LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO AN IMPROVED DRINKING WATER SOURCE AND BETTER SANITATION, 1990-2006 (Percentages of the total population) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database [online].
PROGRESS TOWARDS DEVELOPING A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT MDG 8
THE CONCEPT OF MIDDLE INCOME MASKS LARGE DISPARITIES IN THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SITUATIONS OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES There are significant differences in levels of poverty, institutional development, capacity to access international financial markets and ability to generate national savings Improving effectiveness of ODA means building institutional capacity to coordinate efforts and interests and achieve the objectives on the development agenda This includes reform of the global financial architecture; the crafting of a comprehensive, equitable and transparent debt restructuring framework; and the facilitation of developing countries access to developed country markets An example of this is Aid for Trade, which aims to strengthen countries capacities to draw economic and social benefits from trade, producing impacts not only in the short term, but in the medium and long terms too In terms of efficiency, ODA needs to be channelled in a balanced manner towards productive and social sectors ODA flows have been biased towards social sectors In Latin America and the Caribbean, social sectors absorb almost half of official assistance Official assistance must be directed towards enhancing productive development. It must go to sectors of production and those with the capacity to create jobs MDG-8 T-8A,B,C,D
The development of the digital divide LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: ICT ACCESS COMPARED TO OTHER REGIONS OF THE WORLD (Per 100 inhabitants) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database [online] http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx, 2010http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx MDG-8 T-8F Telephone lines Cellular telephonesInternet users 199020002007199520002007199520002007 World average9.816.019.01.61184.108.40.206.520.6 Developed regions42,4220.127.116.117.81003.929.963.5 Latin America and the Caribbean6.314.617.90.812.267.00.13.925.7 Sub-Saharan Africa1.01.41.50.11.718.104.22.168.7 East Asia2.413.722.214.171.124126.96.36.1998.7
In sum The general balance for the region as a whole is relatively positive Nevertheless, there are countries – some, the poorer ones – that havent progressed enough, in particular in reducing extreme poverty, and there are others that will achieve that target but will still record high levels of poverty Inequality is still a central problem in the region Need to advance towards a Fiscal Covenant Need for the region to achieve a higher participation in ODA flows
Alicia Bárcena Executive Secretary Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean