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Alicia Bárcena Executive Secretary

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1 Alicia Bárcena Executive Secretary
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

2 PROGRESS IN REDUCING POVERTY
MDG 1 TARGET 1A

3 Achievements and prospects for meeting MDG target 1
LATIN AMERICA (17 COUNTRIES): PROGRESS IN REDUCING EXTREME POVERTY BETWEEN 1990 AND 2008 (Percentages) The region has made 85% of the gains necessary to meet the target, in 72% of the time allotted (18 of 25 years). If the rate of progress seen between 1990 and 2008 continues, Latin America will be on track to meet the target of halving extreme poverty The crisis has placed that achievement in jeopardy Less progress (63%) was made in reducing total poverty and the region is less likely to meet this more demanding target. 85% Despite the ground lost with poverty in 2009, Latin America as a whole is on track to achieve the first Millennium target of halving extreme poverty between 1990 and 2015, N.B. This assessment is based on ECLAC poverty measurements obtained using national poverty lines and not the official poverty line (currently 1.25 dollars per person per day), However, a number of countries will not achieve the goal if progress continues at the rate seen between 1990 and 2008, These include the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras and Paraguay, which currently have very high levels of extreme poverty, The region’s progress with total poverty has been slower and most of the countries would not succeed in halving total poverty (which includes extreme poverty) at the current rate, This goal is a more appropriate one for middle- and high-income countries in the Latin American context particularly, Some countries would have to achieve growth much stronger than their historical averages to achieve the first Millennium target Information on poverty in the Caribbean Few data are available: It is not possible to evaluate changes in the period using comparable poverty lines Large differences between World Bank data and national lines Purchasing power parity (PPP) indices were not estimated in 2005 Five countries (Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago) account for 75% of the subregion’s population and over 80% of total poverty in the region (national estimates) Characterization of poverty in the Caribbean Mostly small, open economies that are heavily dependent on developed countries (trade, tourism, remittances) Very vulnerable to natural disasters Poorest: rural areas, children and women Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a The percentage of progress is calculated by dividing the reduction (or increase) in indigence, expressed in percentage points, observed in the period by half of the indigence rate for The broken lines represent the percentage of progress expected by 2008 (72%). The figures reflect a projection to 2008 for those countries whose most recent surrey is earlier than that year. b Urban areas. MDG-1 T-1A

4 For the first time in the history of the region there were improvements in equality
Besides growth, the decrease in poverty rates in the region was also stimulated by improvements in income distribution It is the first time in the history of the region that there are improvements in equality indicators The Gini Index improved between 3% and 10% in 10 out of 20 countries Income in poor households improved 20% (equalize to grow) Brasil, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Ecuador y Panama Venezuela más de 18% MDG-1 T-1A

5 Conditional Cash Transfer Programs
Some 190 million people are thought to be living in poverty in 2009, and 101 million of them are benefiting from CRTPs. There is therefore still room for extending the programmes and covering more families that are unable to meet their basic needs on their own. Los programas sociales de Venezuela no siguen las características de los PTC, aunque varios de ellos cubren las mismas áreas de intervención (ej. salud, educación)‏ Notas del cuadro: (*) Cobertura estimada a partir del número de familias beneficiarias y tamaño medio de los hogares urbanos del quintil más pobre, año más cercano (base de datos BADEINSO de CEPALSTAT) (†) Cobertura programada a/ Beneficiarios programa Puente (componente de apoyo familiar) b/ Incluye misiones Robinson I y II, Ribas, Sucre, Cultura y Che Guevara. MDG-1 T-1A

6 (Percentage of indigent and poor population)a
Some 190 million people are thought to be living in poverty in 2009, and 101 million of them are benefiting from CRTPs. There is therefore still room for extending the programmes and covering more families that are unable to meet their basic needs on their own. LATIN AMERICA (17 COUNTRIES): COVERAGE OF CO-RESPONSIBILITY TRANSFER PROGRAMMES (CRTPs), (Percentage of indigent and poor population)a 93.4 84.3 63.7 55.7 51.9 38.7 36.4 34.7 28.1 7.7 4.6 83.9 83.3 71.2 54.7 51.7 36.0 41.6 41.1 22.2 35.3 17.4 21.2 18.5 14.5 19.2 4.0 2.4 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Ecuador (2009) Brazil (2008) Mexico (2008) Uruguay (2007) Chile (2008) Argentina (2009) Colombia (2008) Panama (2009) Peru (2008) Bolivia (Plur. State of) (2008) Costa Rica (2008) Guatemala (2008) Dominican Republic (2008) El Salvador (2008) Honduras (2008) Nicaragua (2006) Paraguay (2007) CRTP beneficiaries / Poor and indigent population > 100 ... No estamos diciendo que los PTCs en algunos países cubran a todos los indigentes, sino que su cobertura alcanza a una población igual o mayor que el total de población indigente del país. Si la focalización fuese perfecta, efectivamente beneficiaría a todos los indigentes. Percentage of indigent population Percentage of poor population Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys and official information from the relevant countries. a The ratio of CRTPs coverage to the indigent and poor population does not take into account errors of inclusion and exclusion. MDG-1 T-1A

7 PROGRESS IN REDUCING HUNGER MDG 1 TARGET 1C

8 UNDERNUTRITION BETWEEN 1990-1992 AND 2004-2006
The region produces 40% more food than its population needs, yet 45 million people lacked sufficient food in LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (30 COUNTRIES): PROGRESS MADE IN REDUCING UNDERNUTRITION BETWEEN AND (Percentages of progress towards the target) The amount of food available in the region exceeds the requirements of the population by over 40%, but in there were 45 million people (8.6% of the population of LAC) who did not get enough, a figure that must have increased substantially because of the crisis The undernourished population cannot afford food because of low incomes Distributive inequality is a key factor in the hunger that is so widespread in the region Regional progress towards the goal of halving undernourishment (55%) has been slightly less than expected given the time that has passed (58%) and there are differences between countries Regarding the 1996 World Food Summit goal of eradicating hunger, the region is only 22% of the way towards meeting this The Millennium target is much less ambitious, being to halve the level of hunger Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of FAO, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World”, various years [date of reference: 23 November 2009]. a Estimate on the basis of data from b Information from ECLAC, Social Panorama of Latin America, 2008 (LC/G.2402-P), Santiago, Chile, 2008. c Average weighted by the population. MDG-1 T-1C

9 ACHIEVING PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK
PROGRESS IN ACHIEVING PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK MDG 1 TARGET 1B

10 Between 1990 and 2008, the region showed gains in three of the four employment target indicators. The exception is labour productivity, which has experience slow and volatile growth LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: TRENDS IN INDICATORS FOR MONITORING THE EMPLOYMENT TARGET, 1990/ Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people Official indicators 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed 1.5 Employment-to-population ratio (employment rate) 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below 1 dollar (PPP) per day 1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment No quantitative targets were set Between 1990 and 2008, the region showed gains in three of the four employment target indicators: the employment-population ratio, the proportion of employed people living in poverty and the proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment. But labour productivity has grown slowly and unevenly and the region’s gap with the developed countries continues to widen. A comienzos de los noventa el PIB por persona ocupada de los países de la OCDE triplicaba el promedio regional; en 2008 esa distancia se había incrementado a casi cuatro veces (aunque se registró un aumento del ritmo de crecimiento de la productividad media en América Latina y el Caribe a partir del 2003). El fuerte impacto en las economías y los mercados laborales de la crisis global que se manifestó plenamente en 2009 invirtió parcialmente las tendencias favorables. Because of the crisis, the unemployment rate rose from 7.3% in 2008 to 8.2% to 2009 (CEPAL data). Official indicators deteriorated, but did not wipe out all gains made in previous years: Rate of growth of GDP per employed person fell by -1,1%. Only Argentina and Panamá saw GDP grow at a higher rate than employment; Employment rate fell by 1%; The proportion of own account and unpaid family workers in total employment rose by 0,8%. Employment deserves the status of a Development Goal Decent employment is essential for reducing poverty Earnings are the main source of monetary income for households Job creation, better real wages and social protection allow economic growth to feed through into greater welfare Work is a human right that plays a crucial role as a linchpin of social integration Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of household surveys conducted in the relevant countries, and United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators [online] a/ 26 countries, simple average, b/ 18 countries, weighted average, c/ 13 countries, simple average, d/ 13 countries, simple average. MDG-1 T-1B

11 PROGRESS IN EDUCATION MDG 2 TARGET 2A

12 (Percentages and percentage ratios)
The region overall has achieved good access to primary schooling, but difficulties persist in the progression and completion of the cycle LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (36 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES): NET ENROLMENT RATIO FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL AND GENDER PARITY INDEX, a, b (Percentages and percentage ratios) Access to primary education was already virtually universal in the region by the early 1990s, Despite this achievement, the situation as regards progress through and completion of this level was far from ideal. Two decades on, enormous strides have been made but there is no sign of the region being able to universalize completion of the primary cycle, even though some countries will probably achieve this. Almost 3 million children were outside school in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2006/2007. This is one of the few dimensions of development where women are better placed (and this is true of all three levels of the educational cycle). Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) [online] a Adjusted net enrolment ratio. b/ Data for Netherlands Antilles correspond to 2003; for Argentina and Turks and Caicos Island to 2005; and for Anguilla and Paraguay to 2006. MDG-2 T-2A

13 Secondary education: a more demanding target, but a necessary one
LATIN AMERICA (19 COUNTRIES): YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 20 TO 24 WHO HAVE COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION AND GENDER PARITY INDEX, AROUND 2008 AND IMPROVEMENT SINCE 1990 a (Percentages) Although many countries are unlikely to achieve the primary-education target, completed primary schooling is not an educational capital sufficient for obtaining employment. The minimum educational level for a suitable entry to the labour market in order to avoid a situation of relative poverty is a full secondary education. In most countries, complete secondary schooling is required. The region should focus more on secondary education. There have been considerable advances in this area, particularly in terms of coverage, equal access, grade promotion and the completion of secondary education are priorities for the region, and a target which is a long way from being achieved. This situation is an Achilles’ heel for the fight against poverty and efforts to raise productivity and improve the competitiveness of the economies of the region. Attention must be given to deficiencies and inequalities in the quality of education, which hold back economic and social development and certainly do not help to build active citizenship and democracy (SEE NEXT SLIDE). Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a/ Improvement over the closest year available to 1990. MDG-2 T-2A

14 Examples of best practices in education
The “Yes I Can” literacy programme In Argentina, from : 500 literacy centers throughout the country, 3,500 students and over 6000 graduates The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela declared itself an “illiteracy-free" territory in 2005 following the implementation of the programme and some 1,482,543 adults learned to read and write The Abrazo programme in Paraguay In 2008, 1,150 boys and girls alternated between an open centre and school and 795 families were provided with support. As a result, 75% of the boys and girls enlisted in the programme stopped working in the streets; 25% spent fewer hours in the street; and more than 500 families benefited from income- generating alternatives and micro-credit. National strategies to incorporate ICTs into the educationa systems of the region Costa Rica was the first country to initiate a policy for ICTs in schools in 1988 Chile introduced Red Enlaces at the beginning of the 1990s In the second half of the 1990s, Brazil created ProInfo and Mexico Red Escolar, with an emphasis on the educational use of computers and the internet to support curricula In 2000, Argentina created Educar, the first national public educational portal in Latin America. This example was quickly replicated in other countries. Most, if not all Latin American countries have gradually implemented some sort of policy on ICTs in schools Uruguay’s CEIBAL Plan Venezuela recently adopted Portugal’s Proyecto Magallanes The “Yes I Can” literacy programme Developed in 2001 by the Latin American and Caribbean Pedagogy Institute (IPLAC), is based in Cuba It was first unveiled in Haiti and by 2006 it had been implemented in 12 countries in the region, usually by means of initiatives adopted by the local authorities in each country In Argentina, from : 500 literacy centers throughout the country, 3,500 students and over 6000 graduates The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela declared itself an “illiteracy-free" territory in 2005 following the implementation of the programme and some 1,482,543 adults learned to read and write The Abrazo programme in Paraguay Launched in 2005 by the Secretariat for Children and Adolescents with support from UNICEF It provides a comprehensive service to children street workers (boys and girls) and their families, trying to encourage them to gradually give up working In 2008, 1,150 boys and girls alternated between an open centre and school and 795 families were provided with support. As a result, 75% of the boys and girls enlisted in the programme stopped working in the streets; 25% spent fewer hours in the street; and more than 500 families benefited from income-generating alternatives and micro-credit. National strategies to incorporate ICTs into the educationa systems of the region Costa Rica was the first country to initiate a policy for ICTs in schools in 1988 The policy was on the cutting edge at the time and made use of the Logo programming language to develop logical thinking and creativity as cognitive skills (Jara, 2008) This was done through the creation of a nationwide programme that encompassed all levels of education, from preschool to secondary school, and all educational modalities. Technology was brought to the schools via educational computer labs, as well as computers in the classroom (Sunkel, 2006) Chile introduced Red Enlaces at the beginning of the 1990s Effort to connect schools via the internet to create spaces for virtual collaboration and share digital content that would provide cross-cutting curricular support. The creation of this school network was designed to gradually provide the infrastructure for students and teachers to connect and collaborate on projects, exchange educational experiences and reduce the isolation of many schools (Sunkel, 2006). In the second half of the 1990s, ICTs for schools were included in public policy in Brazil (ProInfo) and Mexico (Red Escolar), with an emphasis on the educational use of computers and the internet to support curricula In 2000, Argentina created Educar, the first national public educational portal in Latin America. This example was quickly replicated in other countries. Bolstered by the growth of the internet in the mid 1990s, most, if not all Latin American countries have gradually implemented some sort of policy on ICTs in schools In recent years, Uruguay has launched a significant effort in strategies using schools and students as way of creating mass access to technology with the CEIBAL Plan (Basic Computer Connectivity for Online Learning). The idea is to provide 100% of the students and teachers in public primary schools with laptop computers worth US$ 100. Venezuela recently adopted Proyecto Magallanes, a computer developd by Portugal in a similar strategy MDG-2 T-2A

15 GENDER EQUALITY: WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION, AUTONOMY AND EMPOWERMENT
PROGRESS TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION, AUTONOMY AND EMPOWERMENT MDG 3 TARGET 3A

16 Types of autonomy Three pillars of gender equality and paritary citizenship
Economic autonomy The capacity to generate own income and control assets and resources Physical autonomy Control over one’s body Bears a close relationship to fulfilment of the new target relating to sexual and reproductive health: Maternal mortality Psychological, physical and sexual violence Unmet family planning needs Adolescent fertility Increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among women Participation in decision-making Full participation in the decisions that affect their lives and their community At the tenth session of the Regional Conference on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean, held at Quito in 2007, the member States of ECLAC called for the creation of the Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean, which provides information on the three areas of autonomy measured with indicators: -- Paid and unpaid work, time use and poverty -- Access to and participation in decision-making and political representation -- Gender violence -- Reproductive and health rights The information used by the Observatory is provided by national Governments. -- The dimension of women’s physical autonomy is closely linked to the achievement of the new sexual and reproductive health target. -- There are, however, other issues not covered by that target which constitute pressing problems in the region. MDG-3 T-3A 16 16

17 The parity index reveals that gender equity is not an issue with respect to education
LATIN AMERICA (18 COUNTRIES): GIRL TO BOY ENROLMENT RATIO BY LEVEL OF SCHOOLING, 2007 (Percentages) Education is both a right and a means for individuals’ personal progress, and the target of primary-school gender parity was attained in the 1990s. As was mentioned at the time of the previous report, educational progress has been considerable. Access is guaranteed, and the problem of quality has been receiving attention for some years. MDG-3 T-3A Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) on the basis of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). 17

18 Women in parliament LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: PROPORTION OF SEATS HELD BY WOMEN IN NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS, 2009 (Percentages) BEST PRACTICES: The participation of women in legislative bodies has increased in almost all countries in the region, in large part because of affirmative action, in particular, quota laws. A look at the results for official indicator 12 shows a consolidated upward trend in the participation of women in the lower chambers of parliament over the years, placing the region among the highest in the world for this indicator. In some countries this is thanks to quota mechanisms and sanctions for non-compliance established in the 1990s, as measured by complementary indicator 12C “Existence of a quota law at parliamentary level.” In 2009, 12 of the region’s 33 countries had legislation of this kind. Countries that have a quota law show, in general, better outcomes than countries without such laws. Implementing quota laws marks a “before” and an “after” in terms of women’s participation in countries such as Argentina, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, Mexico and Ecuador. However, despite such laws that seek to promote and increase women’s access to decision-making elected positions, parity has not yet been reached, and even less so the participation rates set by quota legislation in force in Brazil, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic and Uruguay. This shows that establishing quotas does not ensure access for women in these countries. Some hypotheses as to why this is so are: problems arising from the sometimes confusing rules for applying the law, loopholes left for exceptions, or weak or non-existent effective sanctions for non-compliance. The change in mentality that has taken place with respect to the participation of women is reflected in the two surveys of opinion leaders carried out by the ECLAC Division for Gender Affairs, which show that the majority accept female participation and the laws establishing quotas, and that for the region’s elites, the process towards gender parity in politics is under way and perhaps irreversible*. In general, leaders support the aim of gender parity in politics and its most well-known instruments, including affirmative action and laws establishing quotas. At the same time, most of the men and women surveyed think that the increase in the proportion of women has contributed to making the democratic system more representative. The responses show that the political elite do not believe that the deliberate pursuit of gender parity in politics threatens democracy or promotes confrontation between men and women, and they maintain that representatives are elected to public office on their own merits. *Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean [online] Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database (2009), website of the Statistics and Economic Projections Division, last updated: 14 July 2009, and information provided by the Inter-Parliamentary Union: MDG-3 T-3A

19 FULFILLING THE RIGHT TO HEALTH
PROGRESS TOWARDS FULFILLING THE RIGHT TO HEALTH MDGs 4, 5 AND 6

20 LATIN AMERICA (36 COUNTRIES): CHILD MORTALITY RATES, 1990 AND 2009
On average, the region has been making strides towards reducing child mortality, but many countries will fall short of the target LATIN AMERICA (36 COUNTRIES): CHILD MORTALITY RATES, 1990 AND 2009 (Percentages) The region is making progress towards achieving the target of reducing under-five mortality by two thirds, but many countries will fall short of the target. By 2015, despite considerable progress, a number of countries will continue to record very high child mortality rates. With 76% of the time allotted for meeting the target having passed (19 of the 25 years), the improvement at the regional level was 79%. Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of child mortality rates estimated by the Latin American and Caribbean Demographic Centre (CELADE) / Population Division of ECLAC and data from the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision (online). MDG-4 T-4A

21 The countries of the region have made scant progress in reducing maternal mortality
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (26 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES): MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS, AROUND 2005 a -- Although it has declined, the absolute number of deaths and –with a few exceptions– its virtual stagnation are still cause for concern. There is no clear progress towards the target at the regional level. -- The main causes of death relate to the need for care during delivery and the post-partum period. Access to that care tends to be determined by income, and there are other obstacles. -- There are deficiencies in coverage by skilled health personnel, and weaknesses in family planning services and in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), “Health Situation in the Americas: Basic indicators”, 2007 and 2009. a Given the small number of deaths, the ratio for some countries does not conform to standards of reliability and precision. Ratios given only for countries with more than 10,000 births per year. MDG-5 T-5A 21

22 High and increasing levels of adolescent fertility
New target 5B: achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health High coverage of prenatal care, which is not always reflected in low levels of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality High and increasing levels of adolescent fertility The unmet demand for family planning is now lower in the vast majority of countries. Nevertheless, since access to contraceptives is the main factor, social gaps still exist in this area Gaps in access to sexual education, modern contraceptive methods and services, with considerable inequalities depending on level of education, place of residence and ethnic and racial background MDG-5 T-5B

23 HIV/AIDS rates have stabilized and universal access to antiretroviral treatment is possible, yet HIV is still a leading cause of death, particularly in the Caribbean LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: ESTIMATES OF THE INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS, LATIN AMERICA THE CARIBBEAN The incidence of HIV/AIDS has stabilized. If this trend continues, most of the countries in the region will achieve the target of beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, the region may be the first to achieve the target of universal access to antiretroviral drugs. -- In the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic and Haiti are the two countries where HIV/AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among adults aged They have made considerable progress, however; the epidemic has been stabilized in Haiti, and the prevalence of the disease has been reduced in the Dominican Republic. -- Nonetheless, the numbers of women and young people infected, particularly in the Caribbean, are a cause for concern. Source: UNAIDS/WHO, 2009. MDG-6 T-6A,B

24 Towards the eradication of Malaria in Suriname: a success story
MALARIA CASES IN SURINAME, MALARIA MORTALITY RATE IN SURINAME Malaria has been a major health problem in Suriname for 50 years, especially in the inland districts of Brokopondo and Sipaliwini. It was not until the government made a series of political and financial commitments, accompanied by several strategies and programs, that the problem was successfully brought under control. In 1999 the Government created the National Malaria Board, which formulated the national policies, directives and protocols needed to combat malaria. Nevertheless, despite US$ 227,272 in government investment, the malaria infection rate remained very high. The goal of reducing the number of malaria cases by at least 50% by the end of 2005 was set later, in To this end a project was proposed to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The fund, which supports the fight against malaria in developing countries, provided grant funding for the antimalaria programme starting in The main objective of the project was to reduce, by 2010, the incidence of malaria infection among the indigenous and migrant populations of Suriname’s interior. To the satisfaction of both the Global Fund and the Government of Suriname, the results surpassed expectations, as shown by the table above. In a two-year period ( ), the number of malaria cases was reduced dramatically—by more than 50%. There also was a marked decline in the number of persons visiting the Medical Mission (MZ), a non-governmental organization that operates 45 health posts across Suriname’s interior region, staffed by community health assistants. When the programme started up in 2004, Medical Mission posts reported 8,560 new malaria cases and the posts conducted malaria tests on 35,751 people in order to detect malaria. By contrast, in 2008 the number of new cases reported by regular Medical Mission posts was 2,134 and the number of persons examined fell to 11,529. The malaria mortality rate decreased gradually between 2000 and 2008, and there have been no malaria deaths since 2006. Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of Government of Suriname (2009), MDG Progress Report 2009, Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation/General Bureau of Statistic, November 2009. MDG-6 T-6C

25 TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
PROGRESS TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY MDG 7 25

26 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances has diminished considerably
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (29 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES): CHANGE IN CONSUMPTION OF OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ODS), (Tons of ozone depletion potential (ODP) and percentages) Between 1990 and 2007, consumption of ozone-depleting substances fell by around 90%, from 74,652 tons to 7,445 tons. BUT: CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production increased steadily (over 40%). Most of the region’s CO2 emissions are caused by changes in land use, and the carbon intensity of GDP is declining slightly. MDG-7 T-7A Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database [online]

27 Advances and challenges in reaching MDG7
The consumption of ozone depleting substances has decreased significantly The total coverage of protected areas has grown steadily over the last decade The region has made progress in expanding the coverage of drinking water and sanitation services Challenges The area covered by forests is decreasing in LAC. The deforestation rate is double the global rate (-6.97% v % respectively). CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement production increased steadily. The bulk of CO2 emissions in the region are generated by land-use change. There is a lack of reliable information on specific issues essential to the region, such as water resources management, fisheries and endangered species. A systematic survey of information is needed. While the number of people living in slums declined in the period under analysis, the region is still home to more than 100 million people living in unacceptable conditions. Brasil, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Ecuador y Panama Venezuela más de 18% ODM-7 M-7A, B, C, D

28 (Percentages of the total population)
The region has also made progress in expanding coverage of drinking water and sanitation services LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO AN IMPROVED DRINKING WATER SOURCE AND BETTER SANITATION, (Percentages of the total population) DRINKING WATER SANITATION Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database [online]. MDG-7 T-7C

29 MDG 7 and climate change MDG-7 T-7A, B, C, D

30 DEVELOPING A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
PROGRESS TOWARDS DEVELOPING A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT MDG 8

31 THE CONCEPT OF “MIDDLE INCOME” MASKS LARGE DISPARITIES IN THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SITUATIONS OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES There are significant differences in levels of poverty, institutional development, capacity to access international financial markets and ability to generate national savings Improving effectiveness of ODA means building institutional capacity to coordinate efforts and interests and achieve the objectives on the development agenda This includes reform of the global financial architecture; the crafting of a comprehensive, equitable and transparent debt restructuring framework; and the facilitation of developing countries’ access to developed country markets An example of this is Aid for Trade, which aims to strengthen countries’ capacities to draw economic and social benefits from trade, producing impacts not only in the short term, but in the medium and long terms too In terms of efficiency, ODA needs to be channelled in a balanced manner towards productive and social sectors ODA flows have been biased towards social sectors In Latin America and the Caribbean, social sectors absorb almost half of official assistance Official assistance must be directed towards enhancing productive development. It must go to sectors of production and those with the capacity to create jobs MDG-8 T-8A,B,C,D

32 The development of the digital divide
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: ICT ACCESS COMPARED TO OTHER REGIONS OF THE WORLD (Per 100 inhabitants) Telephone lines Cellular telephones Internet users 1990 2000 2007 1995 World average 9.8 16.0 19.0 1.6 12.1 50.3 0.7 6.5 20.6 Developed regions 42,4 55.1 47.6 7.8 47.8 100 3.9 29.9 63.5 Latin America and the Caribbean 6.3 14.6 17.9 0.8 12.2 67.0 0.1 25.7 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.7 22.9 0.5 3.7 East Asia 2.4 13.7 28.5 9.9 43.8 3.6 18.7 Developments in the digital divide The access gap has narrowed in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The quality gap, relating to access to higher-quality technology such as broadband internet access, has widened. The effective dissemination of the economic and social benefits of ICT requires not only access to technology (the access gap), but also equitable access to quality (quality gaps) and efficient use of the technology (usage gaps). Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators database [online] 2010 MDG-8 T-8F

33 In sum The general balance for the region as a whole is relatively positive Nevertheless, there are countries – some, the poorer ones – that haven’t progressed enough, in particular in reducing extreme poverty, and there are others that will achieve that target but will still record high levels of poverty Inequality is still a central problem in the region Need to advance towards a Fiscal Covenant Need for the region to achieve a higher participation in ODA flows

34 Alicia Bárcena Executive Secretary
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean


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