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1 Analyzing and Synthesizing Findings Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood Department of Library & Information Science University of the Punjab.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Analyzing and Synthesizing Findings Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood Department of Library & Information Science University of the Punjab."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Analyzing and Synthesizing Findings Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood Department of Library & Information Science University of the Punjab

2 2 completely in each topic together completely in each topic together Take notes in an organized manner: computer files, note cards, etc. Take notes in an organized manner: computer files, note cards, etc. Include all bibliographic info, especially page number when quoting! Include all bibliographic info, especially page number when quoting! Flag like information with same color post-its across articles. Flag like information with same color post-its across articles. Read the articles

3 3 Summarize main purpose (research questions) main purpose (research questions) methodology methodology qualitative/quantitative qualitative/quantitative subjects, controls, treatments subjects, controls, treatments findings findings relevant details relevant details

4 4 varying definitions of key terms varying definitions of key terms methodology used methodology used size & generalizability of subject pool size & generalizability of subject pool innovative methodology innovative methodology enough evidence? enough evidence? findings consistent with those of similar studies? findings consistent with those of similar studies? Analyze

5 5 Analyze currency: lit review shows the latest work done in subject area. (last 5 years on average) currency: lit review shows the latest work done in subject area. (last 5 years on average) Include older articles if: landmark study landmark study only evidence on a topic only evidence on a topic helps explain the evolution of the research helps explain the evolution of the research

6 6 Synthesize the Literature How does each article relate to your topic and purpose? How does each article relate to your topic and purpose? Define your argument/thesis. Define your argument/thesis. Identify major trends or patterns emerging from your reading. Identify major trends or patterns emerging from your reading.

7 7 Synthesize Reassemble your notes based on results of reading, using organizational aids such as post-its, flags, etc. Reassemble your notes based on results of reading, using organizational aids such as post-its, flags, etc. Revise original outline of categories Revise original outline of categories Create a detailed topic outline Create a detailed topic outline begin with your argument or claim begin with your argument or claim present evidence from articles researched that proves your claim present evidence from articles researched that proves your claim Do not string together a summary of articles. The outline is topic driven.

8 8 Sample topic outline Psychological Aspects of Organ Donation: Individual and Next-of-Kin Donation Decisions I. Introduction A. Establish importance of topic (cite statistics on scarcity of organs). A. Establish importance of topic (cite statistics on scarcity of organs). B. Delimit the review to psychological components of decisions. B. Delimit the review to psychological components of decisions. C. Describe organization of the paper, indicating that the remaining topics in the outline will be discussed. C. Describe organization of the paper, indicating that the remaining topics in the outline will be discussed. II. Individual decisions regarding posthumous organ donation A. Beliefs about organ donation A. Beliefs about organ donation B. Attitudes toward donating B. Attitudes toward donating C. Stated willingness to donate C. Stated willingness to donate D. Summary of research on individual decisions D. Summary of research on individual decisions III. Next-of-kin consent decisions A. Beliefs about donating others organs. A. Beliefs about donating others organs. B. Attitudes toward next-of-kin donations. B. Attitudes toward next-of-kin donations. C. Summary of research on next-of-kin consent decisions C. Summary of research on next-of-kin consent decisions IV. Methodological issues and directions for future research A. Improvement in attitude measures and measurement strategy. A. Improvement in attitude measures and measurement strategy. B. Greater differentiation by type of donation. B. Greater differentiation by type of donation. C. Stronger theoretical emphasis. C. Stronger theoretical emphasis. D. Greater interdisciplinary focus. D. Greater interdisciplinary focus. V. Summary, Conclusions, and Implications A. Summary of points I-IV. A. Summary of points I-IV. B. Need well-developed theoretical models of attitudes and decision making. B. Need well-developed theoretical models of attitudes and decision making. C. Current survey data limited in scope and application points to need for more sophisticated research in the future. C. Current survey data limited in scope and application points to need for more sophisticated research in the future. D. Need more use of sophisticated data analytic techniques. D. Need more use of sophisticated data analytic techniques. E. Conclusion: Psychology can draw from various subdisciplines for an understanding of donation decisions so intervention strategies can be identifiable. Desperately need to increase the available supply of donor organs. E. Conclusion: Psychology can draw from various subdisciplines for an understanding of donation decisions so intervention strategies can be identifiable. Desperately need to increase the available supply of donor organs.

9 9 Note on your topic outline relationships among studies: which researchers, what page, etc. support each point? Note on your topic outline relationships among studies: which researchers, what page, etc. support each point? Note consistency of results from study to study. Note consistency of results from study to study. Note discrepancies among studies and provide possible explanations such as dates of studies, different methodologies. Note discrepancies among studies and provide possible explanations such as dates of studies, different methodologies. Synthesize

10 10 Synthesize Note landmark studies and if replicated. Note landmark studies and if replicated. Note how individual studies help illustrate or advance theoretical notions. Note how individual studies help illustrate or advance theoretical notions. Note gaps or areas needing more research. Note gaps or areas needing more research. Make sure your detailed outline follows a logical sequence of topics and subtopics. This will give your literature review the coherence it needs. Make sure your detailed outline follows a logical sequence of topics and subtopics. This will give your literature review the coherence it needs.

11 11 Some problems could be … Lacking organization and structure Lacking focus, unity and coherence Being repetitive and verbose Failing to cite influential papers Failing to keep up with recent developments Failing to critically evaluate cited papers Citing irrelevant or trivial references Depending too much on secondary sources


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