Presentation on theme: "Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for Libraries"— Presentation transcript:
1 Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for Libraries Prof. Dr. Khalid MahmoodUniversity of the Punjab
2 Important Terms Software is written as text (source code) Software is most often distributed as an application (binary) that runs in a specific operating system and type of hardwareSource code is modified (compiled) by another program (compiler) to create a binaryFree software and open source are in most cases equivalent and may be found abbreviated as FOSS, F/OSS or FLOSSjust give the concepts that code is separate from application and that there is an important freedom in being able to see the source as without it you can never fix any bugs
3 FOSS DefinitionSoftware which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code.Wikipedia
4 What Does ‘Free’ Mean? Freedom to run the program for any purpose Freedom to study and modify the programFreedom to copy the program so you can help your neighborFreedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefitsFreedom, not for freelibre, not gratis
5 Open Source Criteria Free Redistribution Source Code Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.Integrity of The Author's Source CodeThe license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time.No Discrimination Against Persons or GroupsThe license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.No Discrimination Against Fields of EndeavorThe license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
6 Open Source Criteria… Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.License Must Not Be Specific to a ProductThe rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution.License Must Not Restrict Other SoftwareThe license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.License Must Be Technology-NeutralNo provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface
8 Market Penetration67% percent of the World Wide Web is powered by Apache75% of all Domain Name Servers use Bind42% of all Servers run Send MailPHP is used to power 9 million web sites
9 Reduced Costs For a company of 50 users Use of GNU/Linux Microsoft Solution software: $87,988FOSS Solution Software Cost: $80Use of GNU/LinuxIntel saved $200 millionAmazon saved $17millionPublic sector organizations savingsGovernment of Sweden: $1 billionGovernment of Denmark: $480-$730 million
10 FOSS Strengths Ability to fit local needs No restrictions on use Availability of the source code means that you can modify and enhance the software to more closely fit your own needs.No restrictions on useNo restrictions on how the software is used and no invoices for each user license.Low costNo charge for the software itself. If other libraries share their efforts, each user’s cost is reduced. Pay only for needed support or any additional products & services if required. Even then huge savings than commercial SW. InnovationWith open source code, users keep-up innovating, improving which means often much faster development cycle when compared to proprietary software.
11 FOSS Strengths.. User-driven Collaboration Traditional vendors focus on providing functionality meeting needs of the majority of their customers. In contrast, OSS features emerge from the community of users.This makes OSS development user-driven: you decide what features are important and deserve attention rather than a vendor.CollaborationVibrant local, national and global user groups collaborate in creativity, development and trouble shooting.Transfer of Technical Know-HowBeing active member and part of OSS community, your team members will learn the minimum required know-how of SW & technologies in use.
12 FOSS Strengths... Reliability Security and Stability OSS is peer-reviewed software, exposed to extreme scrutiny, with problems being found and fixed instead of being kept secret until the wrong person discovers. So the code base is more reliable than closed, proprietary software. Mature open-source code is as bulletproof as software ever gets. OSS evolves at astonishing speed. People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. Security and StabilityProprietary software, with 'closed' source code, support and future development rely solely on the resources of a single vendor. If the vendor goes down, so does your product support. In contrast, OSS rely on stable code bases developed and supported by many providers worldwide. As a result, libraries using OSS have more support options than those using proprietary software. No supplier lock-inUnlike proprietary software formats, Open Source software allows you to access the source code for your applications and store your data in open standard (non-proprietary) formats. As a result, you are not tied to any particular supplier
13 FOSS Weaknesses Unanticipated Efforts Lack of Coordination A library may find that it needs to do a great deal more work than anticipated to adapt the software exactly to the local needs.Lack of CoordinationThe decentralized development of open source software means that progress can be chaotic and there may be delays in addressing bugs.Inadequate Technical SupportDocumentation tends to be limited and aimed at developers. There usually is limited technical support, especially for users of the software.Risk of discontinuationDevelopment or support may discontinue. The same risk exists with commercial options.
14 Library-related OS Software DSpaceGreenstoneKohaFedoraKeystoneLibraryFindEvergreenMyLibraryOpenBiblioYAZ
15 Koha: First Open Source ILS 300+ libraries worldwideHorowhenua Library TrustNelsonville Public LibraryCrawford County Federated Library System10 LibrariesHoward County, MD1 million volumesCentral Kansas Library SystemNear East University Library1.5 million volumesDelhi Public Library2 million volumes
16 Koha vs. Commercial ILS S.No Core services Alice Libsys New Genlib SoulVTLSLibsuiteKoha01Acquisition02Cataloguing03Circulation04Web/OPAC05Serials06Biblio format07Data exchange10Standards11Cost (Approx.)3.5 Lakh4.5Lakh3.5500008.00lakhFREE16
17 FOSS in Pakistani Libraries CDS-ISISprovided the foundation to library automation in PakistanZebra Server, Yaz Client and MarcEditPakLAG implemented 10 Zebra based OPACs at LOC gatewayKoha ILSExploration Initiated UMT, further Explored NRSP, joined IIU and PakLAG.PakLAG KOHASix Languages Virtual Key Boards, Urdu Marc Export facility, Printing of multilingual spines, book card, membership cards, catalog cards etc.PakLAG among Pay-for-Support CompaniesFirst in South AsiaPakLAG Koha: Adopted byAllama Iqbal Open University IslamabadHITEC University Wah Cantt.Health Services Academy Islamabad