Presentation on theme: "Citing References in Your Research (APA Style)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Citing References in Your Research (APA Style) Dr. Khalid MahmoodDepartment of Library & Information ScienceUniversity of the Punjab
2 Various style manuals APA – American Psychological Association MLA – Modern Language AssociationChicago Style – Chicago Manual of StyleTurabian Style – based on Chicago StyleHarvard Referencing SystemASA – American Sociological AssociationCBE - Council of Biology Editors
3 APA style American Psychological Association In 1929, published instructions for authors on how to prepare manuscripts for APA journalsLater used for theses, term papers, etc.Latest edition 6th in 2009Widely used in social sciences
4 Citing references – Outline Identifying and formatting citing elementsCiting in textPreparing reference list / bibliography
6 Citing elements Author or authoring body Date of publication Title of the workEditionPublisherPlace of publicationTitle of the sourceLocation information within the sourceURL or DOINonroutine information
7 Author Surname and initials Kernis, M. H. Hyphenated first name Sun, C.-R.Editor’s name Robinson, D. N. (Ed.)No author Entry under titleDelete Prof., Dr., Maj., Retd., etc.
8 Authoring body or group Full name National Institute of HealthSubordinate body University of the Punjab, Institute of Business AdministrationGovernment agencies Pakistan, Ministry of Finance
9 Date of publication Journal, book, AV media 1993 Meeting, Monthly magazine, Newsletter , June , SpringDaily, Weekly , September 28Accepted work but not yet published in pressNo date available n.d.Publication over long periodRepublished work, a note at the end (Original work published 1923)
10 Title of the work Title of book Title of book chapter Title of journal articleTitle of encyclopedia articleSubtitle with colon
11 Edition Edition you used Edition in Arabic numeral 2nd ed. Rev. ed. 4th rev. ed.
12 Publisher Publisher name for non periodicals In a brief form Omit superfluous terms, such as Publishers, Publications, Co., Inc. Sage Wiley McGraw-Hill Prentice Hall FerozsonsUse only word “Author” when author and publisher is the same
13 Place of publication Name of city If city is not well known then add state/province and/or country Jaipur, India Medford, NJUS postal service abbreviations for states (2-digit codes) CA for CaliforniaIf more cities are given, use the first or the publisher’s head office if clearly mentioned
14 Title of the source Title of the book in case of a book chapter Title of the journal in case of journal articleJournal title in full Harvard Business Review No Har. Bus. Rev. No HBR
15 Location Journal volume and issue number in Arabic numerals 33(4) Volume of a book Vols (Vol.26, pp )Start and end (inclusive) page numbers for journal article or book chapter (pp )Discontinuous pages , 11-12
16 URL or DOI Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Digital Object Identifier (DOI)/
17 Nonroutine information Give nonroutine but important information in square brackets [Letter to the editor] [Special issue] [Brochure] [Abstract]
19 Author’s name in sentence Schwepps (1998) states that the solution sat dormant for several months before any of the employees tested it (p. 743).
20 Author’s name in parentheses When the solution had been sitting for a number of months, the employees tested for bacteria (Schwepps, 1998).
21 Short quotation When fewer than 40 words Put prose quotation in running textPut quote marks around quoted materialAuthor’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
22 Example – Short quotation Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 11).A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p. 11).
23 Long quotations When 40 words or more In block form Indent 5-7 spaces and omit the quotation marks. If the quotation has internal paragraphs, indent the internal paragraphs a further 5-7 spacesDo not use quotation marksDouble space the block quoteCite the source after the end punctuation of the quote
24 Example – Long quotation Meile (1993) found the following:The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)
25 Secondary referenceIn 1947 the World Health Organization proposed the following definition of health. “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” (World Health Organization, as cited in Potter & Perry, 2001, p. 3).
26 Multiple authors2 authors – cite both names separated by & Example: (Kosik & Martin, 1999, p. 127)3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. Example: (Wilson et al., 2000)6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al. Example: (Perez et al., 1992)
27 Multiple citationsMultiple sources from same author – chronological order, separated by comma (Burke, 1998, 1999, in press)Within same year: (Burke, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)Multiple sources – separated by semicolon, alphabetical order (Burke, 1998; Perez, 1992; Wilhite, 2001)
28 Personal communication Personal communication ( , phone, conversation, letter, etc.)(T.K. Lutes, personal communication, September 19, 2001)Not included in reference list
29 Handling parenthetical citations More than one author with the same last name (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)Specific part of a source(Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
30 Handling parenthetical citations If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers”Citation: (“California,” 1999)
31 Sample parenthetical citations Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996).However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6).
33 Reference listPlace the list of references cited at the end of the paperStart references on a new pageBegin each entry flush with the left marginIndent subsequent lines five to seven spaces (hanging indent)Double space both within and between entriesItalicize the title of books, magazines, etc.
34 Reference list orderArrange sources alphabetically beginning with author’s last nameIf author has more than one source, arrange entries by year, earliest firstWhen an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation as the first author of a group, list the one author entries firstIf no author given, begin entry with the title and alphabetize without counting a, an, or theDo not underline, italicize or use quote marks for titles used instead of an author name
35 Example – Reference list order Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control …Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of …Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors …Kumpfer, K. L. (2002). Prevention …Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., …Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Preventions …
36 Group author American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of theAmerican Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington,DC: Author.
37 Book with one author Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind. Berkeley, CA: University ofCalifornia Press.
38 Book with two authors Struck, W., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.).New York: Macmillan.
39 Book with six or more authors Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N.,Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L.,et al. (2000). An experimentalevaluation of…
40 Book with no author Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA:Merriam-Webster.
41 Book with editors Allison, M. T., & Schneider, I. E. (Eds.). (2000). Diversity and the recreationprofession: Organizationalperspectives. State College, PA:Venture.
42 Chapter in book Stern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990). The ocular system. In J. T.Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.),Principles of psychophysiology:Physical, social, and inferentialelements (pp ). Berkeley,CA: University of California Press.
43 Multivolume bookKoch, S. (Ed.). ( ). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1-6). New York: McGraw-Hill.
44 Journal article Sellard, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995). Administrative issues for use ofnurse practitioners. Journal ofNursing Administration, 25(5),64-70.
45 Article in pressJones, R. (in press). The new healthcare lexicon. Journal of Health.
46 Abstract Misumi, J., & Fumita, M. (1982). Effects of PM organizational development insupermarket organization. JapaneseJournal of Experimental SocialPsychology, 21, [Abstract]Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68,Abstract No
47 Magazine Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262,
48 Newspaper Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, socialstatus. The Washington Post, pp.A1, A4.
49 Encyclopedia article Blaser, L. (1996). Relativity . In Gale encyclopedia of science (Vol. 15,pp ). New York, GaleEncyclopedia Co.
50 Thesis Ho, M. (2000). Coping strategies of counseling professionals (Unpublished master’s thesis,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore).
51 Videotape National Institute on Mental Health. (1980). Drug abuse [videotape]. Bethesda:Author.
52 Electronic sources Velmans, M. (1999). When perception becomes conscious. BritishJournal of Psychology, 90, 543-566. Retrieved from the Expanded Academic ASAP database.
53 Web pageGreen, C. (2000, April 16). History & philosophy of psychology web resources. Retrieved from
54 Article with DOIStultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482–488. doi: /
55 Preprint version of article Philippsen, C., Hahn, M., Schwabe, L., Richter, S., Drewe, J., & Schachinger, H. (2007). Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress is not affected by alpha2-adrenoreceptor activation or inhibition. Psychopharmacology, 190(2), 181–188. Advance online publication. doi: /s
56 Online dictionaryHeuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from
57 Presentation slidesColumbia University, Teachers College, Institute for Learning Technologies. (2000). Smart cities: New York: Electronic education for the new millennium [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from publications/index.html
58 Press releaseAmerican Psychological Association. (2006, April 30). Internet use involves both pros and cons for children and adolescents [Press release]. Retrieved from youthwww0406.html
59 Message posted to an electronic mailing list Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Msg 670]. Message posted to ForensicNetwork electronic mailing list, archived at
60 Weblog postbfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind. Message posted to
61 Sample Reference ListReferences Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August 21, 2002 from: Flory, R. K., (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 12, Flory, R. K., (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, Flory, R. K., & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on schedule- induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, Gentry, W. D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11,
62 APA Manual Website: www.apastyle.org For More InformationAPA Manual Website: