2 Philadelphia Convention May 178755 delegatesEvery state except RIFrom propertied class“without being rich all are in easy circumstances”-Fr. diplomatNationalists wanted to strengthen the central governmentElected George Washington as presiding officerMet in “secret”
3 Virginia Plan Powerful national government Supremacy of national authorityRejected state sovereigntyNational gov’t could veto state lawsNational government would have direct authority over peopleCitizens would elect the lower house of national legislatureLower house representation based on populationLower house would then name the members of the upper houseBoth houses would then choose judiciary and executiveJames Madison
4 New Jersey Plan National gov’t could Raise revenueControl commerceMake binding requisitions on statesExecutive, appointed by Congress, of several individualsJudicial appointed by ExecutiveEach state had one vote in a unicameral legislatureStates could control own lawsWilliam Paterson
5 Debate and Near Collapse After about two weeks of discussionSupported NJ PlanNJ, DE1/2 of MD2/3 of NYVA Plan still basis of discussionKey Questions:How should representatives from each state be determined?What powers should the national gov’t have?Created committee to solveOne delegate from each state
6 Hammering Out a Bundle of Compromises After deciding to scrap the Articles of Confederation, what to do?“Large State Plan” vs. “Small State Plan”“Great Compromise”
7 Political Negotiation “Great Compromise”Upper house 2 delegates from each stateLower house based on populationFederal Judicial SystemStates had own courts and feared losing this powerConvention left creation of system up to new national legislatureVoting was not restricted to just property ownersUpper house chosen by state legislaturesPresident elected by an electoral collegeStates and their legislatures had some power + the people had more direct power = acceptance of reduction of state sovereignty?
8 Compromises cont. Constitutional Convention adjourned on 9/17/1787 Slavery3/5 CompromiseSlave trade would exist for at least 20 yearsSeparation of PowersFederalismStates and national governmentBranches of governmentLegislativeExecutiveJudicialElectoral CollegeConstitutional Convention adjourned on 9/17/1787-Constitution now had to be ratified by voters
9 for Constitution to replace Articles RatificationProcess to ratify the new Constitution Article VIIVoterschoosedelegatesStateconventionvoted onConstitution9 states needed to passfor Constitution to replace Articles
10 Ratification of the Constitution Conducted in special conventions nine states and it would go into effectFederalists vs. Anti-FederalistsUnited States vs. States United*Federalist Papers written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay85 essays to gain support for republican political doctrineEx. Explained “checks and balances”, benefits of large republic*Bill of Rights promised to be added laterMA, NY, VAMet 9 state requirement in 1788
11 Controversy Over the Constitution When the Constitution was printed in the newspapers people were shockedDelegates created a NEW constitutionFramers set up procedure they thought gave the Constitution the best chance to be ratifiedVoterschoosedelegatesStateconventionvoted onConstitution9 states needed to passfor Constitution to replace ArticlesBypassed state legislatures
12 Opposing Sides Federalists Antifederalists Supporters of the ConstitutionLiked balance of power between states and national gov’tSeparation of power would protect against tyrannyAntifederalistsOpposed the new ConstitutionLack of protection for individual rights
13 Opposing Sides cont. Both sides tried to gain popular support The Federalist (Papers)85 essays defending the Constitutionin NYLetter from the Federal FarmerRights that needed more protectionSpeech, press, religion, trial by jury, searches, etc.
14 Bill of Rights – Key to Ratification Federalists promised to add a bill of rights if the Constitution was ratified