Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL MOVEMENTS OCCUR when EVERYDAY PEOPLE ACT COLLECTIVELY at the RIGHT HISTORICAL MOMENT January 2013."— Presentation transcript:
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS OCCUR when EVERYDAY PEOPLE ACT COLLECTIVELY at the RIGHT HISTORICAL MOMENT January 2013
1960 Sit Ins 1955 Montgomery bus boycott 1965 Selma 1964 COFO Freedom Summer Freedom Rides Some of the MAJOR EVENTS OF THE SOUTHERN FREEDOM MOVEMENT 1954 Brown v Board Leading to: CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS AND Freedom from Fear and Freedom of Association POVERTY BUT NOT FREEDOM FROM POVERTY DISCRIMINATION OR FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION
Some key components of a successful social movement: Get Ready to Be Ready Personal relationship and community building, Building an infrastructure Development of local leadership, Creating coalitions, Identifying the problem and doing your homework, Strategic use of the arts, Strategic use of nonviolent direct resistance, Learning how to deal with the contradictions within the movement, and being in the right historical moment.
ORGANIZATIONS: --Build Infrastructure and Coalitions --Develop experienced activists NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People CORE Congress of Racial Equality SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference SNCC (snick) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee COFO Council of Federated Organizations = NAACP, CORE, SCLC, SNCC
Local independent civil rights organizations e.g., Womens Political Council e.g., Montgomery Improvement Association e.g., Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights e.g., Nonviolent Action Group 1957 SCLC Churches 1960 SNCC Black College Campuses Friends of SNCC 1910 NAACP NAACP local chapters Youth chapters The Importance of Infrastructure Highlander CORE Local chapters 1925 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids Federal Council of Churches National Council of Churches 1919 Associated Negro Press HBCUs Fred Shuttlesworth C.T. Vivian Jo Ann Robinson Esau Jenkins Myles Horton A. Philip Randolph
World War II -----Cold War Sit Ins 1955 Montgomery bus boycott King 1957 SCLC SNCC 1910 NAACP 1942 CORE 1964 COFO Freedom Summer 1908 Springfield IL Race riots Panic of 1907 Gandhi Freedom Rides NAACP local chapters in S. bolstered by black WW II vets CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS Bandung Conference African anti-colonial movements LYNCHING The Importance of Historical Moment
1960 Sit ins at HBCUs
World War II -----Cold War NAACP 1964 COFO Freedom Summer MFDP 1908 Springfield IL Race riots End of Reconstruction Gandhi IN SOUTH: local chapters youth chapters 1963 Kennedy shot Bandung Conference African anti-colonial movements National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1954 Brown v Board 1944 Smith v Allwright 1946 Morgan v Virginia 1917 Silent March 1915 Protests against Birth of a Nation LYNCHING 1960 Boyton v Virginia Thurgood Marshall Roy Wilkins Walter White W. E. B. Dubois Ida B. Wells MEDGAR EVERS CHARLES HOUSTON
World War II -----Cold War Montgomery bus boycott King 1957 SCLC Lynching highpoint 1898 Plessy 1896 Gandhi Citizenship schools 1963 Kennedy shot African anti-colonial movements Southern Christian Leadership Council 1965 Selma 1964 COFO Freedom Summer Freedom Schools JO ANN ROBINSON SEPTIMA CLARK E.D. NIXON ELLA BAKER KING AND BAYARD RUSTIN
-----Cold War Sit Ins SNCC Lynching highpoint 1898 Plessy COFO Freedom Summer Voter Registration MFDP 1963 Kennedy shot African anti-colonial movements 1965 Selma Student Nonviolent Co-ordinating Committee World War II Gandhi BOB MOSES ELLA BAKER DIANE NASH WAZIR PEACOCK
World War II -----Cold War CORE Lynching Plessy 1896 Gandhi Freedom Rides 1963 Kennedy shot 1964 COFO Freedom Summer Community centers African anti-colonial movements Congress of Racial Equality CORE 1947 Journey of Reconciliation James Farmer
The First Two Freedom Rides Nashville Birmingham Montgomery Jackson New Orleans Washington, D.C.
World War II -----Cold War Sit Ins 1955 Montgomery bus boycott King 1957 SCLC SNCC 1910 NAACP 1942 CORE 1965 Selma 1964 COFO Freedom Summer 1908 Springfield IL Race riots Lynching Gandhi 1961 Freedom Rides NAACP local chapters in S. est by black WW II vets CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS Morgan v VA Highlander Citizenship schools Community centers Voter Registration Freedom Schools 1963 Kennedy shot African/Asian anti-colonial movements 1960 Boynton v VA 1944 Smith v Allwright Interaction Among Organizations and Leaders
MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM SUMMER
Mississippi Literacy Test c. 1955
The creation of the MFDP
Location of Mississippi projects DISTRICTS State Convention in Jackson 68 Convention Delegates: 64 black 4 white 5 Congressional Candidates 2 Senate Candidates Governor and Lt. Governor
Fannie Lou Hamer ( ) Speaking at the Credentials Committee Hearing of the National Democratic Presidential Nominating Convention Atlantic City, New Jersey - August 22, 1964
Lyndon Johnson opposed the seating of the MFDP and spent political capital twisting arms. The Credentials Committee offered a compromise: MFDP to get two seats at large without voting power. MDP delegates to be seated, had to swear a loyalty oath to the Democratic Party. The MFDP voted against accepting the compromise. The Convention Delegates, under the impression that the MFDP approved the compromise, approved the Credentials Committee recommendations.
The Success of Freedom Summer [T]he most significant thing that the movement gave to us was it removed people from fear. The freedom from fear of being dragged out of your house in the middle of the night for daring to want to be part of the mainstream, of daring to dream or want to participate, to want to have equal justice, that equal pay for equal work that my father used to talk about. The generations since the movement have not been taught to stay in their place or to understand that theres a certain way to walk and stand and look at and relate to white people. For white and blacks, I think that is the most significant contribution it made to people in [Mississippi]. -- L.C. Dorsey
What happened in 1964 symbolized the situation that we are in now. The National Democratic Party and the political leadership of that party at the time, said, okay, theres room for these kind of people. And it was the professional people within our group who were asked to become part and did become part of the Democratic Party. On the other hand they said, there isnt room for these peoplegrassroots people, the sharecroppers, the common workers, the day workers. Theres room for them as recipients of largesse poverty programs and the like. There isnt room for them as participants in power sharing. --Bob Moses The Failure of Freedom Summer
Never again were we lulled into believing that our task was exposing injustices so that the good people of American could eliminate them. We left Atlantic City with the knowledge that the movement had turned into something else. After Atlantic City, our struggle was not for civil rights, but for liberation. -- Cleveland Sellers The Lesson of Freedom Summer
THE SOUTHERN FREEDOM MOVEMENT 1960 Sit Ins 1955 Montgomery bus boycott 1965 Selma 1964 COFO Freedom Summer 1961 Freedom Rides 1954 Brown v Board Leading to: CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS Freedom from Fear Freedom of Association BUT NOT Freedom from POVERTY or Freedom from DISCRIMINATION
Vincent Harding From Fundi: The Story of Ella Baker (1981)... Because this country has been changed [by the Southern Freedom Movement], we must change too if we are going to continue to carry on the struggle.... You move into a struggle with certain kinds of visions and ideas and hopes. You transform the situation and then you can no longer go on with the same kinds of visions... because you have created a new situation yourselves. And if anybody has taught us how to be flexible and change and recreate our ideas and our thoughts as time has gone on, Ella Baker has done that.
Ella Baker speaking at the MFDP State Convention Until the killing of black men, black mothers sons Is as important as the killing of white men, white mothers sons We who believe in freedom cannot rest until it comes
San Francisco Freedom School Google: sf freedom school