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Diversity in European Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Emily Buck.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversity in European Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Emily Buck."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversity in European Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Emily Buck

2 Talk Overview Introduce European Chestnut –Biology –History –Economic Value –Concerns for the Species Future Conclusions and Discussion Preliminary Results CASCADE - EU project CASCADE at East Malling

3 Biology - Castanea sativa Mill. Classification –Family: Fagacea –Genus: Castanea –13 Castanea species –C. sativa, indigenous to Europe Age and height –30-35m, 150+ years old –Tree of 100 Horses - 2000-4000 yrs Monoecious Wind (insects) pollinated

4 History Centre of origin Spread of C. sativa pre - glaciation

5 Spread of C. sativa post - glaciation History

6 Economic Value Castanea sp: Nuts –World production: 510,702 t/yr –Asian 64%, Europe 30% –C.sativa & hybrids Turkey: 70,000 t/yr Castanea sativa: Wood –Mainland Europe: structural and agricultural –UK: agricultural use; fences –18, 788 ha in UK; 42% coppice –Coppice: stems cut 3-25 year rotation

7 Concerns for the Species Future Climate change –water and temperature –seasonal variation –disease spread Phytophthora (ink disease) Cryphonectria (chestnut blight) –selection –management practice Global Average Temperature ºC 14.4 13.5 18602000 Year Human intervention Implication of habitat loss

8 Dr Romane, CNRS-CEFE Dr Robin, INRA Dr Villani (co-ordinator), CNR-IAS Dr Vannini, University of Tuscia Dr Botta, University of Torino Miss Russell, HRI East Malling Dr Garrod, University of Newcastle Dr Eriksson, University of Agricultural Science Dr Fernandez-Lopez, CIFL-Lourizan Dr Aravanoupoulos, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki Dr Diamandis, NAGREF CASCADE - Partners

9 Securing Gene Conservation, Adaptive, Breeding Potential and Utilization of a Model Multipurpose tree species (Castanea sativa Mill.) in a Dynamic Environment CASCADE 5th EU Framework Programme Work programme 2: Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development. Key Action: Global Change, Climate and Biodiversity. Thematic Priority: Assessing and Preserving Biodiversity.

10 Distribution, ecology and management plant surveys, site history questionnaire Gene dispersal and genetic make-up application of molecular markers East Malling involved Variation in adaptive traits QTL mapping drought, frost resistance field performance East Malling involved Main areas of research CASCADE

11 5 Socio-economic & environmental impact –questionnaires growers and consumers 6 Strategy for integrated conservation and utilisation –integration research areas 1-5 Main areas of research CASCADE 4 Variation in disease resistance –incidence of Phytophthora sp. –resistance; inoculate seedlings, shoots

12 CASCADE Populations: Natural stand Coppice Orchard Extreme sites Other sites

13 CASCADE - 3 Population Types Natural stand Coppice Orchard

14 Fluorescent primers ABI 3100 prism Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) - Microsatellites 33 P labelled primers autoradiography ………..AGAGAGAGAGAGAG……….. Italy and East Malling - SSR Enriched libraries C. sativa

15 Results - SSR primer Development 13 East Malling Castanea sativa (EMCs) SSR primers

16 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 7 10 9 12 11 Results - CASCADE SSR Mapping 12 linkage groups (chromosomes), 829 cM 458 markers: RAPDs, ISSR, Isoenzymes, AFLP, STS, SSRs UK Italian

17 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 7 10 9 12 11 Results - SSRs for Diversity Screen Screening diversity: 8 mapped SSRs, 3 not mapped SSRs Not mapped UK Italian

18 Application of polymorphic SSRs –Total of 11: 6 East Malling, UK 5 University of Torino, Italy Screen CASCADE environmentally extreme sites –Natural, coppice and orchard populations –8 trees and 20 seeds from each population –Total of 3,864 samples CASCADE - Diversity Screen

19 Results - East Malling Diversity Screen 6 polymorphic SSR loci Total of 81 alleles found so far

20 Results Preliminary relationships between individuals: –Natural populations –UK populations Spain Greece France UK Italy

21 Central Greece Results Natural populations & UK Northern Greece Greece populations discrete groups Individuals from Central and Northern Greece in separate groups Spain Greece France UK Italy

22 Southern Italy Results Spain Greece France UK Italy Southern Italy group, from Sicily UK and French generally dispersed throughout Spain Northern and Southern Spain Group Natural populations & UK

23 Conclusions and Discussion Two distinct groups from Northern and Central Greece –diversity within Greek populations low –variation in adaptability experiments: Greek samples low adaptability –unique group?, susceptible to climate change? Distinct group from Southern Italy, dispersed individuals from Northern Italy –diversity within Southern Italy population low –diversity within Northern Italy population higher similarities samples in Spain, France and UK –Romans spread from this region? Natural

24 Conclusions and Discussion Group of Spanish individuals –diversity within Spain populations low? –some samples dispersed, spread from refugia? French samples dispersed –natural spread / introduced from diverse Italian site, or Spanish refugia Natural

25 Conclusions and Discussion Diversity within Orchards and Coppice populations varies –region dependant –may be result of different selection pressure and history of given population? Orchard and Coppice Additional data from other markers Diversity in UK populations –unusual diverse for marginal population –multiple imports from different areas at different times? But very susceptible to Phytophthora (Ink disease)

26 Acknowledgements CASCADE Project co-ordinator: Fiorella Villani Italy: R. Botta, D. Marioni, M. Casasoli Greece:P. Aravanoupoulos, S. Diamandis Spain:J. Fernandez-Lopez France:F. Romane, C. Robin, A. Grossmann, T. Barreneche PhD advisor:Karen Russell PhD supervisors: David Blakesley Christine Cahalan Dave Moodley, Suad AlMarrooei, Bruce Sutherland, Dan Sargent, Bobbie Maxted, everyone in the lab

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