2 AmendmentsChanges to the constitution can only be accomplished through the amending process.The first ten amendments are called the Bill of Rights.They place strict limitations on how the national government can use its power.Later amendments gave rights to other groups and some changed how the government operates.Only 27 amendments in 221 years
4 The First AmendmentDemocracy must contain citizens who are able to express ideas.The first amendment protects freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and right to petition the government.
5 First Amendment Rights in the News Cartoon Controversy
6 Freedom of Religion Congress cannot establish an official religion. “Separation of Church and State” keeps religion out of politics.Two important clauses are the establishment clause and the free exercise clause.Religion cannot be a basing factor in America.
7 Establishment Clause Government Cannot Promote Religion
9 Establishment Clause - Government CansTeach about religions in schoolAllow voluntary prayer in many examplesTransport students to a religious schoolRead Bible for culture or literacy contentCannotSet a state religionGovernment cannot order a prayerTeach religious doctrine in the schoolPay seminary teachersTeach creationism
11 What are the first 10 amendments called? The PreambleThe ArticlesThe Bill of RightsThe Personal Freedoms
12 Free Exercise – A person CanChoose whatever religionLead a prayer in most examplesAsk questions about religionsWorship who ever you wantCannotBreak the law and claim it is religious beliefRaise children without educationDeprave children of basic needs
13 Freedom of Speech“Congress shall make no laws abridging the freedom of speech”
14 All of the following are a freedom protected by the 1st Amendment except: Freedom of ReligionFreedom to bear armsFreedom of assemblyFreedom to petition
15 Freedom of SpeechPeople are free to say what they want with a few exceptions.Lying about a person is called slander and is a crime.Giving military secrets to other countries is called treason.Freedom of speech has evolved into freedom of expression.
16 Free Speech – An Individual Can Say any political beliefProtest (without getting out of control)Say things about someone that are trueBurn the flagSay racist and hate slogansFree speech means someone might say something you disagree with
17 Freedom of Speech – Personal Limits Threaten to blow up airplanes, schools or the presidentSexual harassmentCreate too much social chaosExtremely crude language in a public formDisrespectful, vulgar language in schoolsHate crimes
18 Freedom of the PressCongress shall make no law abridging the freedom of the press.”
19 Freedom of the Press Freedom to communicate ideas. Printing lies about a person is called libel.The US government cannot ban information.
20 Freedom of the Press – The Press CanPrint any political positionMake fun of people, especially politiciansExpose wrongs by the governmentSay things you might not agree withCannotLibel– intentionally injuring a person’s reputation by false factsDisclose defense-security secretsDetail how to make a certain weapons
21 Freedom of AssemblyCongress shall make no law Abridging The people to peaceably assemble”
22 Freedom of Assembly Permits peaceful assemblies. People are permitted to join organizations.
23 Freedom of Assembly – An Individual CanProtestParade (with a permit)Parade chanting hate slogansGang members can congregate in publicCannotProtest by throwing rocks and breaking windowsHang out on private land against owners will—loiteringTeen curfew
24 Petition the Government “Congress shall make no law Abridging the people. . . to petition the government for a redress of grievances”
25 Right to Petition the Government Formal request.Our right to express our ideas publicly about the government.Representatives are not required to act on a petition, but if there is enough support, they will express the people’s ideas.
26 LimitsThe 1st amendment does not allow Americans to do whatever they want.People must take into account the rights of the community.
27 2nd Amendment—Right to Bear Arms “A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.”
28 What is the debate with the right to bear arms? How much can the government keep guns from criminals and youth?In order to keep guns away from criminals, does that limit the right of law abiding citizens?
29 Gun Debate ContinuedThousands of people die every year because of gunsThousands of crimes are prevented because of gunsShoes Represent Gun Deaths
30 2nd Amendment in the News Obama and GunsCourt on Gun Control
31 Third AmendmentThe Government cannot force you to shelter soldiers in your home without your consent in time of war or peace.
32 Amendments #4-8 Rights of the Accused Important to preserve freedom
33 Fourth AmendmentProtects the people from the government improperly taking property, papers, or people, without a valid warrant based on probable cause (good reason).Search and Seizure – Unreasonable, but many exceptions todayMapp v. Ohio
34 Fourth AmendmentWhat does a policeman need in order to search your home?A warrant given to him by a judgeProbable cause is also needed
35 What right means we have to be told of what we are charged with in a crime? Ex Post FactoBill of AttainderHabeas CorpusCloture
36 Fifth AmendmentYou cannot be tried for the same crime twice—called “Double Jeopardy”You do not have to testify against your self. “I plead the fifth”You must have due process of law before you are convictedThe government cannot take your land unless it pays. – Eminent DomainMust be formally charged (writ of habeas corpus)
37 Sixth AmendmentRight to speedy trial by impartial jury—meaning not favoring either sideYou must be told of charges (habeas corpus)You must be provided a lawyer if you cannot afford oneGideon v. WainwrightMust be able to question all witnesses
38 Class DiscussionWhy is the right to a “speedy” trial important?
39 Seventh Amendment“In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.”Jury trials for certain civil trials.
40 Eighth AmendmentNo excessive bailNo cruel and unusual punishment
41 Ninth Amendment“The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”Addresses rights of the people that are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.“Powers of the People”
42 Class Discussion Why did the Framers want to include Amendment IX? What’s it’s purpose in the Bill of Rights?
43 Tenth AmendmentStates that any power not granted to the federal government belongs to the states or to the people.Restates the principle of federalism in the Constitution“Reserved Powers”
44 Which amendments protect the rights of the accused? 2, 4, 5, 64, 5, 6, 74, 5, 6, 85, 6, 8, 9
45 11th and 12th Amendment11th (1795) – Places limits on suits against statesFederal courts have limited jurisdiction over state courts12th (1804)– Revises procedures for electing president and vice presidentPresident and Vice President must be on separate ballotFor instance, couldn’t elect Biden instead of Obama in the Electoral CollegeWho elects the President when there isn’t a majority?
46 What term refers to a court’s ability to hear a case? Original jurisdictionJurisdictionCertiorariStare Decisis
47 Civil War Amendments 13th, 14th, & 15th 13th Amendment (1865) – Abolished slavery and any other forced labor.Exception punishment for a crimeEx. Chain gangs and clean up crews
48 Civil War Amendments 13th, 14th, & 15th 14th Amendment (1868) – U.S. citizen is anyone “born or naturalized in the U.S.”Due to Black Codes in Southern States“Equal protection of the laws”Forbids states interfering with “privileges and immunities of citizens of the U.S.”Nationalization of Bill of Rights
49 Civil War Amendments 13th, 14th, & 15th 15th Amendment (1870) – Prohibits the government from denying a person’s right to vote on the basis of race.Still didn’t help African Americans in Southern States due to literacy tests and poll taxes.Many would have to wait another 90 years to vote.
50 16th and 17th Amendments16th Amendment (1913) – Establishes the right for the government to impose an income tax on citizens.17th Amendment (1913) – Direct elections for Senators.State legislatures were in charge of this before. Part of the Progressive movement.
51 Class DiscussionWhere does most of the National government revenue come from? How about states?
52 18th, 19th, & 20th Amendments18th Amendment (1917) – Prohibition – no more legal alcohol.Temperance Movement19th Amendment (1920) – Gave women the right to vote.20th Amendment (1933) – Ended lame duck officials. Moved the inauguration date from March to January.
53 Class DiscussionDo people need the national government to protect them from bad habits?
54 21st, 22nd, & 23rd Amendment21st Amendment (1933) – Overturned 18th amendment. Ended Prohibition. Only amendment to repeal another.22nd Amendment (1951) – Limits the President to 2 terms.This was after FDR was elected to 4 terms.23rd Amendment (1961) – Gave Washington D.C. residents the right to vote for President and VP.
55 Class DiscussionWhat does the 22nd Amendment say about our view of the President?
56 24th, 25th, 26th, & 27th Amendments24th Amendment (1964) – Abolished Poll TaxUsed to keep people with low incomes from voting25th Amendment (1967) – Established process for VP to take over as President and how to fill a VP void.Due to assassination of which President?26th Amendment (1971) – Lowered voting age to 18 years old.27th Amendment (1992) – Congressional Pay raises.
57 Class DiscussionWhy do you think the voting age was changed from 21 to 18 years old?
58 Which are the Civil War amendments? 12, 13, 14, 1513, 14, 1513, 14, 15, 1612, 13, 14