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Elephants. Asian elephant Small ears High vertical forehead Females tuskless Proportion of tuskless males varies Loxodonta African elephant Large ears.

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Presentation on theme: "Elephants. Asian elephant Small ears High vertical forehead Females tuskless Proportion of tuskless males varies Loxodonta African elephant Large ears."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elephants

2 Asian elephant Small ears High vertical forehead Females tuskless Proportion of tuskless males varies Loxodonta African elephant Large ears Receding forehead Both sexes usually have tusks

3 Uses of the trunk As a tool As a tool Grazing & browsing Grazing & browsing Manipulating objects Manipulating objects Moving water Moving water As a sense organ As a sense organ Touch Touch Smell Smell As a social-signaling organ As a social-signaling organ A trumpet that amplifies vocalizations A trumpet that amplifies vocalizations A bearer of visual signals A bearer of visual signals A touch-communicator A touch-communicator

4 Distribution of Asian elephant Elephas maximus South Asia Southeast Asia Sumatra Borneo Extinct Mesopotamia and Syria? S.E.China Java (10 th century)

5 African bush elephant Loxodonta africana Open areas in Africa south of Sahara Formerly slopes of Atlas Mountains (tamed by Carthaginians) Still in Eritrea (tamed by Ptolemaic Egyptians, ca. 250 B.C.) African forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis African rainforest Small size Round ears Thin straight tusks Gangala na Bodio

6 Catching Indian elephants the last Keddah (Mysore, 1970s) 1 The tame elephants set out 2 The wild elephant herd that is destined to be caught

7 3 The tame elephants return to the keddah - One of the converging fences seen in background 4 The keddah People come from miles around to watch

8 5 The tame elephants and the wild herd approach the keddah 6 The elephants have all entered the keddah, and the gate has been shut behind them

9 7 and 8 The wild herd is inside the keddah; the tame elephants are herding them towards the sides where they will be roped or trapped

10 9 A wild elephant has been roped by a mahout who has jumped down 10 Oher wild elephants are separated into holding compartments

11 11 A newly caught young bull is led away between two tame elephants 12 A newly caught cow and calf are led away between two tame elephants

12 13 Newly caught elephants being taken for their first bath. This has a calming effect 14 The newly caught cow and calf being taken from the water after their bath

13 Value of elephants in Asian culture and economy Logging Chiangmai, Thailand Ceremonial Colombo, Sri Lanka

14 56-year-old bull elephant in musth near Kandy, Sri Lanka chained to tree

15 War elephants, B.C. Indian elephants African elephants Carthaginian Spain, before Second Punic War 218 B.C. King Demetrius of Bactria with symbolic elephant helmet 250 B.C. Seleucus I B.C.

16 Tame African elephants today Forest elephants Gangala na Bodio 1950s Bush elephants Okavango 2002


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