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Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 1 English as a Lingua Franca in Asia. Which Model of English.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 1 English as a Lingua Franca in Asia. Which Model of English."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 1 English as a Lingua Franca in Asia. Which Model of English Should We Teach and When Should We Teach it? Andy Kirkpatrick Challenges of the Millennium: Language Changes UP Diliman September 2010

2 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 2 A definition A contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue, nor a common (national) culture, and for whom English is the chosen foreign language (Firth 1996:240) [no necessary linguistic advantages to any speaker] But English also functions as a lingua franca when English is used as the common language between L1 speakers of English and others [linguistic advantage to LI speakers] – (Phillipsons lingua frankensteinia)

3 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 3 Many languages have been lingua francas For example, in Asia: an old form of Malay Kwenlun served as a lingua franca for SE Asia several hundred years ago (Alisjahbana 1976). The dream / objective of some Malay scholars today (Rashid 2006)

4 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 4 Two major regional lingua francas are Bahasa Indonesia (BI) and Putonghua (Pth) [And note presence of a common national culture] They became lingua francas in quite different ways BI is, in fact, derived from Malay. Malay was spoken by less than 2% of the population in multicultural and multi-ethnic Indonesia.

5 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 5 Indonesia has a population of more than 200 million with more than 200 ethnic groups and 400+ languages. Javanese is the largest language with 75 million L1 speakers; but was not considered as a possible lingua franca because:

6 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 6 (i) It would privilege an already powerful group; (ii) It is a language / culture in which hierarchies are expressed in linguistically complex ways. Malay was chosen because: (i) its speakers were not considered a threat; (ii) it had a history of being a lingua franca; (iii) It was considered relatively easy.

7 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 7 The adoption of BI as Indonesias lingua franca has proved very successful. But, are other Indonesian languages and cultures under threat as a result? anda in BI and hierarchy and language in Javanese (Siegel 1986)

8 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) Is BI a relief or concern for Javanese speakers? Should the pragmatic norms and cultural values of local languages be dropped from BI? Is there a Javanese BI? Is Javanese under threat? Should ELF follow Anglo norms? (cf. Koreans)

9 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) The reasons for the adoption of Putonghua could hardly be more different. China is also multi-ethnic and multilingual. 54 official national minority groups (speaking many more than 54 languages) 7 major Chinese languages (with many sub- dialects etc.) (Ramsey 1987) 7 major Chinese languages (with many sub- dialects etc.) (Ramsey 1987) The language of the powerful has been adopted as the lingua franca

10 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 10 How secure are the other Chinese languages? Cantonese in Hong Kong – but what about on the Mainland? Shanghai-nese? In Singapore, thou shalt not speak. Hong Kong doctors and Cantonese patients

11 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 11 Putonghua has been highly successful in that the great majority of Chinese are now able to understand it. So, in Indonesia a language spoken by a powerless minority becomes the lingua franca. In China, the language spoken by the powerful becomes the lingua franca. What about Tagalog/Filipino in the Philippines?

12 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) ELF in ASEAN ASEAN represents political, cultural, and historical diversity Linguistic diversity: languages Bangkok Declaration of 1967 makes no mention of languages or of a working language.

13 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) ASEAN Charter (ratified Feb 2009) to promote an ASEAN identity through the fostering of greater awareness of the diverse culture and heritage of the region in the spirit of unity in diversity, BUT the working language of ASEAN shall be English (Article 34) (cf. EU)

14 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) English in the ASEAN schools curricula All countries have English as integral part of the primary curriculum, some from P1 (Indonesia is the sole exception) All countries have English as integral part of the primary curriculum, some from P1 (Indonesia is the sole exception) Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines use English as a medium of instruction for some subjects in primary schools Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines use English as a medium of instruction for some subjects in primary schools It is the MoI in Singapores schools It is the MoI in Singapores schools

15 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) Recent Changes Malaysia (cf. Brunei) The Philippines Singapore Hong Kong and China

16 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) In any event, English is used by more than 800 million multilinguals in Asia alone (Bolton 2008); and we need to know something about how these people use English in lingua franca communication (cf. also the BRIC group) If we want to understand the use of English in todays world, ELF must be one of the central concerns in this line of research (Mauranen 2006:147).

17 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 17 The Asian Corpus of English (ACE) Corpus articles / number I know when we touch _ money issue it can be very controversial… (Indonesian) some strength and some weaknesses (Vietnamese) some strength and some weaknesses (Vietnamese) one three time or four time a years (Filipino) one three time or four time a years (Filipino)

18 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 18 Ind: I waited] for the official who pick me up ok er and then I tried to look for the official but because er er the plane you know landed so early so (ehm uh oh) the official hadnt come yet (C: ehm) yeah Myan: what a pity (laugh) Ind: er er I I I had to stay in the airport and then did nothing (C: ehm) just sit and I check the placard of (ehm) RELC (M: ehm) ok and er and I couldnt see thats why I just sit and take a rest…what about you what time

19 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 19 Some of the information will need to be update (Thai)Some of the information will need to be update (Thai) Once this blueprint adopted (Indonesian)Once this blueprint adopted (Indonesian) We didnt know what is it for? Malay) Now the third strategies is how we can..? (Thai)

20 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 20 Prepositions and the second purpose is to seek for a discussion (Thai) we tell about opportunities for each SEAMEO centres (Thai) thanks for the World Bank who supports this programme (Indonesian)

21 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 21 Whats Going On? (i) Too many shared but distinctive features to be able to argue for substrate language influence: especially as there are so many shared features between British and other vernaculars; (ii) Claiming a universal feature is dangerous – the tyranny of the counter example!

22 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) A dichotomy between Vernacular Universals and contact-induced change should not be drawn because many linguistic changes involve both kinds of process – that is, various processes of contact-induced change and also universal tendencies of various kinds (Thomason 2009:349). A dichotomy between Vernacular

23 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) Britains universals for British vernaculars. Standard English is a minority dialect in England (2010:37) Every corner of the country demonstrates a wide range of grammatically non- standard forms, reminding us that such forms are the rule rather than the exception in spoken English English (2010:53).

24 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 24 Wherest thou bin? Cooks peels the potatoes and then they wash and boils them He make them and farmers make them Folks sings RU34T?

25 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 25 There is a great deal of similarity in the grammatical features of vernaculars, WEs, AEs and ELFs The differences between AEs and ASEAN ELF occur: (i) phonologically – although there are also a surprising number of shared features (cf. Deterding and Kirkpatrick 2006) (i) phonologically – although there are also a surprising number of shared features (cf. Deterding and Kirkpatrick 2006)

26 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 26 (ii) Lexically – WEs and AEs are characterised by their use of culturally specific lexical items from ang mo to bush tucker a flowered pillowcase, breathing through the same nostril, chewing on your parents shins. and, of course, code-mixing at various levels

27 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 27 (iii) Pragmatic and cultural norms. WEs and AEs are characterised by their use of these: From requesting to complimenting; Turn-taking in seminars (Rusdi 1999)

28 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 28 The lexical items and code mixing are unlikely to be used in ELF communication. Multilinguals are sophisticated and aware enough not to use these culturally and linguistically specific terms and strategies when involved in ELF communication. They are conscious of their use of these items and strategies. Is the above assertion true?

29 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 29 People tend not to be so conscious, however, of pragmatic and cultural norms. So the transfer of pragmatic and cultural norms from WE and AE communication (where identity is stressed) to ELF communication (where communication is stressed) may cause problems in cross- cultural understanding.

30 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 30 So, the study of cultural and pragmatic norms of WEs and AEs is of great importance. Should, for example, we accept, deflect or reject compliments in Asian ELF communication? Should, for example, we automatically give respect to elders in Asian ELF communication?

31 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 31 We have moved beyond the postcolonial period and are now in the post- anglophone. It is the age of the multilingual. International intelligibility replaces native- like proficiency as the major goal.

32 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 32 Goal of English language learning becomes the ability to use English successfully; Goal is not to develop native speaker proficiency or native speaker norms; METs replace NETs;

33 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 33 Linguistic benchmarks should be set by successful multilinguals, not by monolinguals (Garcia 2009) Regional / world cultures replace / supplement (complement) Anglo cultures in the curriculum. The Asian-culture course for Indonesia

34 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 3 Principles 1. English is now an Asian language; it is commonly used as a lingua franca throughout Asia by so-called non-native speakers in order to communicate with other non-native speakers. 2. When these speakers use English, they need to be able to talk about each others cultures in English.

35 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 3. If the English taught is to be used primarily as a lingua franca, based on a local model and if the materials are to be based on local and regional cultures, does that not imply that local and regional English teachers who speak the model to be taught and have knowledge of the cultures to be taught are the most appropriate teachers?

36 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 36 But what about the other languages in the Asian school curriculum? (i) In general the primary school should focus on local languages; children need linguistic confidence and a sense of identity; (cf. Hong Kong vs. Singapore [and the Battle of the Songs]); (ii) There is plenty of time to learn the multilingual model of English if you start in secondary school; (iii) No room for English as an MoI in primary schools [literacy in Chinese].

37 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) We need an ELF curriculum for ASEAN/Asia (i) that includes Asian cultures and literatures in English; (ii) that validates local varieties of English, ELF and the multilingual (iii) that validates local trained and linguistically proficient multilingual teachers. (iv) that sees local languages as important

38 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 38 References Alisjahbana, Takdir S. (1976) Language Planning and Modernisation. The Case of Indonesian and Malaysian. The Hague: Mouton. Azirah Hashim (2009) Not plain sailing: Malaysias language choice in policy and education. AILA Review 22: Aziz, Aminudin, Sudana, Dadang & Noorman Culture-Based English for College Students. Jakarta: Grasindo. Bolton, Kingsley (2008) English in Asia, Asian Englishes and the issue of proficiency. English Today 94 (24)(2): Britain, David (2010) Grammatical variation in the contemporary spoken English of English. In Andy Kirkpatrick (ed.) The Handbook of World Englishes. London: Routledge. Deterding, David and Kirkpatrick, Andy(2006). Intelligibility and an emerging ASEAN English lingua franca. World Englishes 25 (3): Firth, Alan (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality. On lingua franca English and conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics 26(2): Garcia, Ofelia (2009). Bilingual Education in the 21 st Century. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project Annual Report (2008) accessed August House, J. (ed.) (2009). The pragmatics of English as a lingua franca. Intercultural Pragmatics (Special Edition) 6.2. Jenkins, Jennifer (2007). English as a Lingua Franca: Attitudes and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press Kirkpatrick, Andy (2008). Learning English and other languages in multilingual settings. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 31(3):1-11. Kirkpatrick, Andy (2010). English as a Lingua Franca in ASEAN: The Multilingual Model. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press Kirkpatrick, Andy (2010) Researching English as a lingua franca in Asia: the Asian Corpus of English (ACE) project. Asian Englishes, 13(1). Mauranen, Anna (2006) A rich domain of ELF: the ELFA corpus of academic discourse. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 5 (2), Mauranen, A. & E. Ranta (eds.) (2009). English as a lingua franca: Studies and findings. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Ostler, Nicholas. (2005) Empires of the Word: a language history of the world. London: Harper Collins.

39 Research Centre into Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) 39 Phillipson, R.P (2008). Lingua franca or lingua frankensteinia? World Englishes 27(2): Preisler, Bend (2009) Complementary languages: the national language and English as working languages in European universities. Angles on the English-speaking world, 9: Ramsey, S Robert. 1987). The Languages of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press Rehman Rashid (2006). A Malaysian Journey. Rehman Rashid: Petaling Jaya: Malaysia Rusdi, Taib (1999) Schema of group seminar presentations and rhetorical structures of presentation introductions: a cross cultural study of Indonesian and Australian students in university academic settings. Asian Englishes 2, 1: Seidlhofer, Barbara; Breiteneder, Angelika; Pitzl, Marie-Luise (2006). English as a lingua franca in Europe. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 26: Sharifian, Farzad (2010) Semantics and pragmatic conceptualisations within an emerging variety: Persian English In The Handbook of World Englishes. Edited by Andy Kirkpatrick. London: Routledge. Siegel, James, T (1986) Solo in the New Order: Language and Hierarchy in an Indonesian City. Princeton University Press. Szmrecsanyi, B. and Kortmann, B Vernacular universals and angloversals in a typological perspective. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola and H. Paulasto (eds.) Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond, London/New York: Routledge, 33–53. Thomason, Sarah G. (2009) Why universals versus contact-induced change. In Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond: Widdowson, H. (2003). Defining Issues in English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


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