Presentation on theme: "Systemic Functional Grammar –"— Presentation transcript:
1Systemic Functional Grammar – Can SFG resolve those myths pedagogic grammar perpetuates?Chia Suan Chong
2Label the parts in this sentence: I can’t possibly cover all of Systemic Functional Grammar in half an hour!
3Did you say: I can‘t possibly cover all of SFG in half an hour. subjectauxiliary modaladverbverbobjectadverbial phrase
4But if you used the part of speech ‘verb’, why not: Parts of speech/ Class label:nouns, verbs, adverbs, determiners etc...do not show the part it plays in a structure.Only functions in pedagogic structures:subjects & objects.Ican‘tpossiblycoverall of SFGin half an hour.pronounaux modaladverbverbnoun phraseadv phrase
5What is SFG? Grammar: the organisation of language; Chomsky: grammar hard-wired into brain;vsHalliday: Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny; language acquisition is an interplay between nature & nurture;Learning a language is learning how to mean (Halliday, 1975); a child learns structures that reflect the functions required to serve his/her life.
6Halliday’s 3 metafunctions What, then, are the functions of language?Halliday’s 3 metafunctionsInterpersonal metafunctionTextual metafunctionExperiential metafunction
71. Interpersonal Metafunction: The Clause as Exchange DeclarativesCoursebook grammarcanconfusestudents.subjectfinitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidueStudentscouldhave beenconfused.subject‘past’ finitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidueCoursebooksdo notusefunctional labels.subject‘negative’ finitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidue
9The subject carries the responsibility for the validity of the clause. The finite carries the validity of the proposition.Together, the subject and the finite (the mood) represent the point of view of the speaker while the residue carries the actual content.Manipulating the mood enables us toindicate polarity (negative or positive),indicate time,indicate modality,make interrogatives and imperatives,make question tags
10In fact, the finite is the core bandied about in exchanges. Boss: You didn’t teach the students any real grammar!Chia: Yes, I did!Boss: No, you didn’t!Chia: Did!Boss: Didn’t!
11Understanding the mood element,... ...explains the appearance of the dummy auxiliary ‘do/did’.The audiencelooked (did look)at me strangely.subject‘past’ finite‘look’ predicatorcomplementMoodResidueDidthe audiencelookat you strangely?finitesubjectpredicatorcomplementMoodResidue
12It also explains the different meanings of... ...as in ‘you are not allowed to leave’;...as in ‘you are allowed not to leave’.Youmay notleavethis room.subject‘negative’ finitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidueYoumaynot leavethis room.subjectfinitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidue
13...which perhaps clarifies the difference between... and...Youmustnot leavethis room.subjectfinitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidueYoudon ‘thave to leavethis room.subject‘negative’ finitepredicatorcomplementMoodResidue
14Name these tenses and aspects: I am speaking at the IATEFL conference.I am going to be telling them about SFG.When I decided to submit the proposal, I had already talked about this subject many times ...at the pub.I will try not to get carried away with the theory.I am going to have irritated a few people by the end of this talk because I will have shaken quite a few beliefs about language.
15Using SFG,We model ourselves into the past, present or future according to the finite.The predicate gives the point of event as seen from that modelled self indicated by the finite.Thus,I am speaking – present-in-presentI am going to be telling – present-in-futureI had already talked – past-in-pastI am going to have irritated – past-in-futureI will have shaken – past-in-future
16Complete the following with –ing or to-inf. Deny ______ Agree + ______Enjoy ______ Hope + ______Imagine + ______ Want + ______and... Remember + ? ; Hate + ? ; Regret + ?Can you find a ‘rule’ that’s useful for students?Perfective (to-inf): unreal – future, appearance, goal, intentions, proposal;Imperfective (-ing): real – present, reality, happening, action, proposition.
17Raymond Murphy probably owns an island in the Caribbean. Why do we use the passive?Raymond Murphy probably owns anisland in the Caribbean.The island in the Caribbean isprobably owned by Raymond Murphy.
18an island in the Caribbean. The island in the Caribbean 2. Textual Metafunction: The Clause as MessageRaymond Murphyprobablyownsan island in the Caribbean.ThemeRhemeGiven NewThe island in the Caribbeanisprobablyownedby Raymond MurphyThemeRhemeGiven New
19I cancelled the meeting. I called the meeting off. What, therefore, is the difference between...I cancelled the meeting.I called the meeting off.And why can’t we say, ‘I called off it’?
20Compare: I cancelled the meeting Theme Rheme Given NewIcancelledthe meetingThemeRhemeGiven NewIcalledthe meetingoff.ThemeRhemeGiven New
21‘Today, happen something really strange ‘Today, happen something really strange.’ X Reformulation: ‘Today, something really strange happened.’ How can we leave ‘something really strange’ in the new position? What happened today was something really strange. The thing that happened today was really strange. Something happened today. It was really strange.
223. Experiential Metafunction: The Clause as Representation Who does what to whom?The clause represents the content of our experiencesGrammatical system of transitivityDifferent functional labels forParticipants (realised by nominal groups)Processes (realised by verbal groups)Circumstances (realised by prepositional phrases or adverbials)
23Material processes (doing & happening) e.g. build, chase, write, etc.Igavethe audiencea bribeduring my talk.ActorProcess:materialBeneficiaryGoalCircumstanceIgavea bribeto the audienceduring my talk.ActorProcess:materialGoalBeneficiaryCircumstanceThe audiencewas givena bribeduring my talk.BeneficiaryProcess:materialGoalCircumstanceA bribewas givento the audienceduring my talk.GoalProcess:materialBeneficiaryCircumstance
24Mental processes (sensing) Emotion e.g. like, hate, etc.Cognition e.g. imagine, know, etc.Perception e.g. hear, feel, etc.Desideration e.g. want, desire, etc.Ilovethis audience!SensorProcess: Mental: EmotionPhenomenon
25Circumstantial Adjunct Existential processes (introducing) Relational processes (being & having) Verbal Processes with projectionsThereismoneyin my bag for everyone.Process: ExistentialExistentCircumstantial AdjunctThe lady in the back rowisgorgeous.CarrierProcess: RelationalAttributeShesaid,“Your talkismost intriguing!”SayerProcess: VerbalQuotingQuoted
26Different process types have different basic unmarked forms.e.g. Unmarked present tense formaterial processes is the present-in-presentrelational and mental process is present simple.Therefore,‘I hate theoretical grammars but I’m loving this one.’