Presentation on theme: "Burkina Faso: - West Africa - French speaking country."— Presentation transcript:
1TOPIC Designing reading materials in an environment of material scarcity Constantin Sanon
2Burkina Faso: - West Africa - French speaking country. Secondary school: two levels the first four years form the first cycle. the following three years constitute thesecond cycle.Pupils take English classes throughout their secondary school education.
3Justification of the topic: Teaching reading holds an important place in the teaching of English in Burkina Faso secondary schoolsIn the second cycle (= senior high school): no one specific course book. most teaching evolves around readingSo, it is interesting to deal with “text adaptation” since instructors have to rely on resources they must find for their own use.
4Definition of reading For Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary: to read = “to look at and understand the meaning of written or printed words or symbols”.For Penny Ur: reading = “reading and understanding”. reading without understanding is not reading;it is decoding – translating written symbolsinto corresponding sounds” (in A Course inLanguage Teaching p. 138.)
5Reading and text adaptation From the above, reading = reading comprehension (term used for classroom reading activity).Adapting a text = the process of finding an authentic text which can be of interest to learners, and bringing some modifications to it in order to make it usable as the basis for teaching in-class reading activities.
7I. Possible sources for class reading materials Articles from newspapers,magazines … Extracts from novels, plays, stories … Texts from existing textbooks (oldones, ones from other culturalbackgrounds …) Texts from the internet Relevant French texts to betranslated into English.
8Where can we find these materials? Libraries (school, university), English speaking countries’ embassies and culturalcenters, Airports, NGOs, individual English speakers, Bookstores, Cyber centers (cybercafés), For teachers working in remote areas: need to moveto the capital city to find the embassies, culturalcenters and airports. If teachers resort to bookstores:- need to have necessary funds- contribution from their school administration orsome partners to subscribe to some newspapers ormagazines, to make photocopies, …
9II. Tips for adapting texts for classroom use 1. Choose texts which meet learners’ interests : texts dealing with issues that are of interestto them, which motivate them→ take into account their “pre- majors”(litera-ture, science, business, vocationaltraining, …), their classes and levels, theirinterests in domains such as sports,culture, religion, social activities …
102. Keep the text as authentic as possible (as close as possible to the original one)3. Select articles of an appropriate lengthif possible.4. For longer pieces of writing: reduce the text to an acceptable length keeping it as complete as possible select important parts or paragraphskeeping intact the general idea and progression of the writer’s reasoning.
115. Substitute difficult vocabulary words with simpler ones: those vocabulary words are those which meanings are not accessible (even in context) to the learner and will prevent the understanding of the text.6. Give the explanation of a few vocabulary items at the end of the text.7. Substitute highly complex and confusing structures with clearer ones. It can imply breaking sentences into two or more.
128. Omit references made to parts of text or things which are not obvious through the adapted text. 9. Add 1 or 2 explanative or precision words when necessary.10. Make connections between ideas more explicit by using connectors known to the learners.
13Note : The above proposed tips are not to 11. Replace a pronoun by its referent whenthe latter is not obvious.12. Design appropriate activities to use thetext profitably in class.Note : The above proposed tips are not tobe used all for the same text. Theywill be used as necessaryaccording to the text at stake.
14III. Designing a lesson plan based on an adapted text Depending on the duration of the class, the level of the class, the number of activities designed for each part, all or part of the types of activities proposed below can be dealt within one class period.
15A. Pre-reading activities Set the ‘context’ of the text to be studied.Pre-test learners knowledge of the context and/or subject dealt with in text.Communicating the objective of the lessonDealing with prediction activities (from title, author – if known to students – learners predict what [nouns, verbs, ideas…] will appear in the text)Pre-teach limited number of vocabulary that are paramount to comprehensionEtc.
16B. While-reading activities It is important to set reason-for-reading questions even before the first reading. Activities among others are: Questions on finding out main idea of textChecking guesses (if previously made)Multiple choice questionsYes / No questionsTrue / False statementsMatching exercisesSentence completionDrawing / making diagram based on textReordering scrambled sentencesSummarizingproviding a title to a textEtc.
17C. Post-reading activities Calling on learners’ experience to expand from the text; going beyond the text (= creative types of activities based on the text studied):Discussion based on the topic dealt with in the textDebatesSimulationsDesigning sensitizing campaignsEtc.
18Bibliography- Larimer Ruth E. & Shleicher Leigh [Editors] (1999). New Ways in Using Authentic Materials in the Classroom. Illinois : TESOL, Inc.- Gebhard Jerry G. (1996). Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language. Michigan : Michigan University Press.- Wood Tessa (1992). Ways of Training : Recipes for teacher training. Singapore : Longman.Professional Development Training for English Teachers of Burkina Faso by the English Inspectorate,Ur Penny (1996). A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.