Language is not a collection of rules and target forms to be acquired, but rather a by-product of communicative processes. Ellis, N (2007) Dynamic systems and SLA: The wood and the trees. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10/1
the adjective or noun – or sometimes other type of word – that comes after, but not necessarily always after, the linking verb
AREAS OF RESEARCH 1.pronouns and determiners 2. stative verbs 3. much 4. be like as reporting structure AREAS OF RESEARCH 1.pronouns and determiners 2. stative verbs 3. much 4. be like as reporting structure
COLLINS CORPUS COLLINS CORPUS (4 billion words) UK and US English spoken and written English since 1990 We examined:
PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS A I saw John yesterday. He was with his new girlfriend. My mum is from New Zealand. She moved to Britain when she was 15. B A person cannot ignore the past but he can choose his future. Every child needs to feel that she is loved.
A If you see Chris and Linda, tell them Ill call later. Residents are allowed to bring their own furniture. B If anyone calls, tell them Im in a meeting. Everyones entitled to their own opinion. PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS
GENERIC PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS 1.If you want to help somebody, you have to accept them first. 2. If you want to help somebody, you have to accept him first.
3. If you want to help somebody, you have to accept her first. 4. If you want to help somebody, you have to accept him or her first. GENERIC PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS
We searched the corpus for: he, him, his, himself she, her, hers, herself they, them, their, theirs, themselves he or she, his or her, s/he, etc.
…referring back to: someone, anyone, everyone, each, every, a person…, etc. GENERIC PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS
Tricky examples: There is one rule that debars anyone who has played first-class cricket as a home player in his native land in the previous 12 months.
Tricky examples: I mean steal a baby to give it away don't be crazy why did they whoever left it on our doorstep maybe she'll come back for it… GENERIC PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS
Both informal: When somebody feels good, theyre healthy, they work harder and theyre more focused.
…and formal: The retention piece allows an individual to transfer a portion of their benefit or all of their benefit at different points in their career…. GENERIC PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS
Used even when gender is known: I talked to somebody else in line, and they said it would be many, many hours.
GENERIC PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS Ask the young mothers and no one will say they regret having their baby.
STATIVE VERBS 1. What are some typical stative verbs? 2. When can you use them? When cant you use them?
The term is typically used for verbs relating to: lasting emotions(e.g. love, like, hate, want) mental states(e.g. know, think, imagine, remember) senses(e.g. see, hear, smell) permanent states(e.g. belong, own, possess, fit, keep) STATIVE VERBS
But hang on a tick, I'm forgetting my manners. Nobody is imagining that the Conservatives can win.
I'm wanting the film to be deliberately old- fashioned. I'm loving midnight blue eye shadow. STATIVE VERBS
meaning enjoy: I'm loving my football so much at the moment I can't wait for the next game to come along. (UK 90–94)
STATIVE VERBS: love meaning enjoy: Now Jessica is four months old and Gillian is loving every minute of motherhood. (UK 90– 94)
STATIVE VERBS: love meaning like very much: Kids 2 and 3 years old are loving our album. (US 05–09) …a model and artist who looked particularly cool in colourful striped socks and a pair of Converse – a look we're loving. (UK 05–09)
…and the phrase loving it or lovin it: People are relating to the film and they are loving it, so who am I to complain? (UK 05–09) STATIVE VERBS: love
STATIVE VERBS: want Compare: We've been wanting to come for three years. It was worth the wait. Everyone knew that Bob had been wanting to resign for months. You want to get married, you want kids, next thing you'll be wanting Tupperware.
…with: My sponsors have invested a lot of money in it, and I think they're wanting to capitalize on it. We were wanting a price of $35 million and didn't get it. STATIVE VERBS: want
muchmuch How many children do you have? Ive got too many things to do. I didnt have many friends at school. ? I had many friends at school. How much time do we have? Ugh! Too much information! We dont have much time. ?? We have much time. What is the rule for much and many?
REPORTING STRUCTURE be like We saw that and we were like Oh my god! At first, I was like, no, what are you talking about? They look at you like youre mental and it's like, Chill out, whats your problem?
When I was a teenager, that song came on the radio and it was like, Oh, my God! (UK 05–09) So I get back in the bus, quarter of an hour passes and it's like, Where's Graham? (UK 90–94) REPORTING STRUCTURE be like