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Presentation on theme: "ELT & PRAGMATICS: WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW WHY ? WHAT ? HOW ?"— Presentation transcript:


2 THE AIM OF TEACHING PRAGMATICS to help learners use L2 appropriately and effectively in interactions and be aware of socially appropriate language use.

3 WHY PRAGMATICS IN AN L 2 CLASS ? COMMUNICATION-WISE: Pragmatic errors may have serious consequences (eg. miscommunication, communication breakdown). (Crandal and Basturkmen, 2004) TEACHING MATERIAL-WISE: Textbooks do not offer enough and accurate opportunity to acquire pragmatic competence (Kasper 2001; Kasper & Roever, 2005) (quoted in Uso-Juan, 2008:223)

4 WHY PRAGMATICS IN AN L 2 CLASS ? EFL ENVIRONMENT-WISE: limited in terms of input opportunities...the range of speech acts and realisation strategies is quite narrow and the typical interaction patterns restrict pragmatic input and opportunities for practising discourse organization strategies. (Lörcher & Schulze, 1988) TEACHABILITY-WISE: Instructional pragmatics works fine and pragmatics is teachable. (e.g. Kasper, 1997; Rose & Kasper, 2001; Tateyama et. al., 1997) (quoted in Uso-Juan, 2008:223)

5 WHAT PRAGMATIC ASPECTS TO TEACH ? Model 1: A reductionist view of pragmatics vs. post- structuralist perspective (valid for teaching of any foreign language) (Taguchi, 2011) Model 2 : (Specific to English) EFL / ESL / ELF 1. Native-speakerist perspective 2. Non-native speakerist perspective

6 W HAT ASPECTS OF L2 PRAGMATICS CAN BE TAUGHT ? ( I SHIHARA, 2010:113-4) Pragmalinguistics aspects strategies for speech acts conversational implicatures epistemic stance markers discourse structures, discourse fillers (through CA) vocabulary and chunks in a particular context relevant grammatical structures Sociopragmatic aspects the relative social status of the speakers (writers) and listeners (readers) social distance and psychological distance the intensity or severity of the act (imposition) the goal and intention of the speaker, the speakers attainment of the goal and the listeners interpretation directness/politeness/formality in an interaction multiple functions of a speech act cultural norms in the L2 culture cultural reasoning or ideologies behind L2 pragmatic norms (

7 H OW TO TEACH ? (T AGUCHI, 2011:305) A reductionist view a post-structuralist view More authentic less structured dialogic activities

8 HOW TO TEACH PRAGMATICS: D IFFERENT M ODELS FOR D EVELOPING P RAGMATIC C OMPETENCE Form- Focused Instruction Focus on Forms Focus on Meaning Focus on Form Implicit Instruction Explicit Instruction

9 S TRATEGY INSTRUCTION ( COHEN, 2010: ) Strategy Instruction Strategies for learning speech acts Eg. identifying speech acts and gathering info. about them Speech act strategies Strategies for performing speech acts Eg. Using cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies to realize the act

10 A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR FACILITATING DEVELOPMENT OF PRAGMATIC AND INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCIES (M ARTINEZ F LOR AND U SO -J UAN 2006, QUOTED IN TAGUCHI,2011:297) Revising: Learners receive feedback and revise their production Rehearsing: Learners are provided opportunities to practice their knowledge in communication Reasoning: Learners analyze acts using L2 data Receiving: Learners receive instruction on the L2 version of these pragmatic acts Reflecting: Ls analyze it in terms of pragmalinguisitc and sociopragmatic aspects Researching: Ls are exposed to pragmatic concepts and Ls gather data in L1

11 THE RELATION BETWEEN MENTAL SKILLS, AWARENESS & EXPLICITNESS ( OZDEMıR, 2011:95) Cognitive Domain: Mental Skills Higher Order Skills Lower Order Skills Higher Level of Awareness (Metaawareness) Lower Level of Awareness Understanding Noticing Blooms Taxonomy (1956) Revision of Blooms taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) EvaluationCreating SynthesisEvaluating AnalysisAnalysing ApplicationApplying ComprehensionUnderstanding KnowledgeRemembering


13 INVITATIONS, ACCEPTING AND REFUSING INVITATIONS: INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC FEATURES AND SOCIAL VARIABLES Listen to the two dialogues (inviting someone to dinner - in a formal context (D1)/ inviting someone to a party - in an informal context (D2)). What are the similarities and differences between the situations? Who are the people?Where are the people? What is their relationship?How is their relationship? Do they know each other? Are they strangers to each other? Is their social status equal?How do these factors affect their language use? DIALOGUE 1DIALOGUE 2

14 ACCEPTING AND REFUSING INVITATIONS: CA & DISCOURSE STRUCTURE Work in pairs. Listen to the dialogues again (D1 and D2). Identify what speakers do in each turn. Eg. Ann:_______________ (invites) Alberta:_______________ (refuses/reason) Ann:_______________ (insists) Alberta:_______________ (requests/negotiation) Ann:_______________ (negotiation approval) Alberta:_______________ (accepts the invitation) In how many turns does X accept/refuse the invitation? Do speakers accept/refuse the invitation directly or indirectly?

15 LET LEARNERS NOTICE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC FEATURES AND SOCIAL VARIABLES Watch the scenes one more time, and write down how Ann invites Alberta to her party. OR Look at the two (written) diaogues and highlight how Ann invites Alberta to her party. DIALOGUE 1DIALOGUE 2 We are having a dinner for some of our customers and friends after the meeting. Would you like to join us? Hey, you are coming to my party? Well, perhaps you could join us for a drink after the dinner?

16 LET LEARNERS NOTICE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC FEATURES AND SOCIAL VARIABLES Find language clues showing the social relationship between the speakers. Do you use similar address forms in your mother tongue in such situations? Dialogue 1Dialogue 2 Address formsFirst name Attention getters…Hey Linguistic featuresWould, could…. FillersWell, yes, actually...Well, yeah, alright.. Episdemic stance markers I think, maybe …Of course….

17 STRATEGY VARIATION: REFUSING INVITATIONS Listen again and write down how Jack refuses Lisas invitation. Identify the strategy he uses. Compare Jacks strategy with Albertas. Why do Jack and Alberta use different strategies? Do you find Jack and Albertas strategies appropriate in that context? Is s/he polite, direct, formal? If you were Jack/Alberta what would you say? Why? Dialogue 1Dialogue 2 Unfortunately I promised my daughter that Iwould take her to dinner, but thank you for the invitation. Im not coming. say you are sorry give a reason thank direct refusal

18 A PRODUCTION ACTIVITY: CHANGING THE STATUS ( ADAPTED FROM I SHIHARA, 2010) GROUP WORK 1: Form groups of three. Read the scenario card and write a dialogue. GROUP WORK 2: Write a dialogue for the same situation but this time A is the boss of B and C. SpeakerHearer Scenario 1:A (close friends with B&C)B&C Scenario 2: A (Boss)B&C (workers) Write dialogues and underline and identify the strategies (accept and refuse) you use. You (A,B,C) are three very close friends and having a drink at a cafe. A wants to give a little home party. A invites both B and C to the party. B has a plan for that night and s/he has to refuse the invitation. C is very happy with the invitation and accepts it.

19 EVALUATION Role play your dialogues. Evaluate acceptance and refusals of each group using the evaluation chart. Is the language A uses appropriate? (1 very appropriate 5 totally inappropriate?)Why? What are the linguistic clues? (address forms, attention getters, head-strategy etc.) What are the nonlinguistic clues? How does SX refuse the invitation? In how many turns? (directness) Is the language SX uses formal? What are the linguistic clues? Is the language SX uses polite? What are the linguistic clues? Evaluations are discussed as whole class. GROUP 1GROUP 2GROUP 3 Directness Formality Politeness

20 HOW WOULD YOU REVISE? Choose two dialogues (eg. Dialogues of group 1 & 5). Revise the problematic parts. What parts are problematic? How would you change it? Evaluate your response. Your responseEvaluate your strategy and language use a. Identify your strategy b. Write an evaluation of your response

21 CONVERSATIONAL CLOSINGS Watch the three conversations. (C1/C2/C3) Focus on contextual factors: Where are the conversations taking place? Who are the interlocutors of each conversation? What is the purpose of each dialogue? Which conversation is the most formal/informal? Why? Which conversation ends abruptly? Which conversation is the most polite/rudest? Lets try to find the conversational closing strategies in each dialogue. Learners are given the dialogues.

22 CONVERSATIONAL CLOSINGS Work in pairs.Underline linguistic evidence of conversational closings. Find the differences between the conversational closing strategies used in the three dialogues. How do speakers in conversation 1/2/3 let their interlocutors know that they are closing the conversation? Which conversation is closed abruptly? Is it rude? Why/Why not? (contextual factors) D1D2D3 1st move: ….. 2nd move:…… Total number of strategies:

23 CONVERSATIONAL CLOSINGS Explicit instruction on how dialogues are finished in English (naturalistic data samples) - indirect (okay then, we will work on that on Monday- summarizing the point of conversation) - direct (I need to hang up now/ I have to run now) - using specific words such as alright, thank you etc. A discussion on how the same strategies may sound abrupt and rude in respect to contextual features. Example natural dialogues (abrupt-rude/abrupt- polite) can be analyzed as a whole class activity.

24 CONVERSATIONAL CLOSINGS Work in pairs. Read the scenario card and write a dialogue, and finish the conversation in two different ways. What strategies did you use in D1 & D2? Why? How many turns did you take to finish the conversation in D1 & D2? What are the clues of formality, intimacy, politeness? Scenario 1: Speaker A has an important meeting in 5 minutes and wants to cut the dialogue short with Speaker B. Scenario 2: Speaker A is done with her/his work and has time to make travel plans for his/her flight. Speaker A (Boss): Your secretary calls you to confirm the day and time that you want to fly to Paris. Speaker B (Secretary): Your boss asked you to book a ticket to Paris. However, you need to confirm the day and time s/he wants to fly before you purchase the ticket. Call your boss now, learn when s/he wants to fly and finish the conversation.

25 PEER EVALUATION Act out the dialogues before the class. Listen to the dialogues of other groups. Fill in the chart and evaluate the dialogues of other groups. Choose one dialogue. Revise the problematic parts. Are there any problematic parts? How would you change it? Write down the actual leave- taking strategy Strategy type (direct/indirect/ a specific word) Strategies letting speakers know that they are closing the conversation Polite/Rude Dialogue 1 Dialogue 2 Dialogue 3

26 TEACHER ASSESSMENT T. assesses learners dialogues. Example (Scenario 1): A & B do not have equal status. For this reason the formality of the language B uses is not appropriate. A s leave taking strategies are appropriate. A tries to cut the conversation short, using leave taking strategies in each turn. Bs strategies are appropriate (B is asked to demand information from A, although he/she knows that A is busy- B is asked to violate Grices maxims). Actual leave taking strategies Degree of Appropriacy (1- 3) Strategies letting speakers know that they are closing the conversation Level of formality in the conversation

27 REFERENCES Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., et. al. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, USA:A.W. Longman. Cohen, A. (2010). Strategies for Learning and Performing Speech Acts. In N. Ishihara & A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Pragmatics: Where Language and Culture Meet (pp ). Malaysia: Pearson Education. Ishihara N. (2010). Theories of Language Acquisition and the Teaching of Pragmatics. In N. Ishihara & A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Pragmatics: Where Language and Culture Meet (pp ). Malaysia: Pearson Education. Taguchi, N. (2011). Teaching Pragmatics: Trends and Issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, Uso-Juan, E. (2008). The Presentation and Practice of Communicative Act of Requesting in Textbooks: Focusing on Modifiers. In E. Alcón Soler & M.P. Safont Jordà (Eds.), Intercultural Language Use and Language Learning (pp ). The Netherlands: Springer.


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