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Motivating Our Learners : Actualising the Vision

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Presentation on theme: "Motivating Our Learners : Actualising the Vision"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivating Our Learners : Actualising the Vision

2 Future Possible Selves

3 Future Possible Selves
Possible Selves are individuals’ ideas of what they could become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming (Markus and Nurius, 1986) what they would like to be: the Ideal Self) what they feel they should be: the Ought To Self (Higgins 1998)

4 Future Possible Selves
This defines four future possible selves: The Ideal Self The Ought to Self The Feared Self The Default Self

5 The Ideal Future L2 Self ‘The ideal L2 self is a powerful motivator because we would like to reduce the discrepancy between our actual and ideal selves.’ (Dornyei 2009)

6 The Ideal L2 Self: seven steps
Creating The Vision Substantiating the Vision Counterbalancing the Vision Unifying the Vision Enhancing the Vision Operationalising the Vision Keeping the Vision Alive

7 Structure of Motivating Learning

8 Creating a vision of the Ideal L2 Self
Different learners’ visions… My Successful Tourist Self My Successful Career Self My Global Citizen Self My Member of the Community Self

9 Where to next? What can we do to actualise this motivating vision and ensure it doesn’t remain in the realm of fantasy?

10 Operationalising the Vision

11 Operationalising the Vision
You must understand, I am not by nature a daydreamer. I try to control those parts of my life that can be controlled, to plan everything that I want to happen down to the most insignificant detail. I traffic in a world in which fractions of a second separate success and failure, so I'd visualized the 1996 Olympics down to the millisecond. I'd crafted a decade of dreams into ambitions, refined ambitions into goals, and finally hammered goals into plans (Johnson, 1996; p. 14)

12 Mapping the Journey

13 Aim? To provide a route map towards actualisation of the vision and ensure that it does not remain in the realm of fantasy.

14 Mapping the Journey Mapping the Journey From Vision to Goals
From Goals to Plans From Plans to Strategies From Strategies to Achievement

15 From Vision to Goals

16 Vision to Goals Entails:
analysing vision into list of ambitions, and classifying these into those achievable within the syllabus, those which could be added in and those to be met by self-study revisiting original vision and breaking it down into list of long-term and short term goals Additional group dynamics aim : keeping the group together




20 Personal Goal Statement
Class Goals, eg: ask the way and understand directions read a menu and order food Personal goals ( not covered by the syllabus),eg: rent a car understand street signs quickly In order to do this I will, eg: find some additional materials on car rentals put in extra reading practice


22 Goal breakdown: short term goals
Class goals: By the end of the week we will: ………………………………………………………………. Additional Personal Goals: By the end of the week I will: ………………………………………………………………… I will spend ……… hours of self study to achieve this: Signed: Witnessed:

23 From Goals to Plans

24 Goals to Plans Entails: translating weekly goals into a study plan
breaking down of short term or weekly goals into a series of concrete tasks the ordering of these tasks into a timetable or study plan

25 Goals to Plans This week in class we will: For homework we will:
For self-study I will:

26 Goals to Plans

27 Task tree

28 Intention bubbles

29 From Plans to Strategies

30 Plans to Strategies Entails:
Introducing students to a range of helpful techniques to improve their study efficiency and helping them to select those which work best for them in order to carry out their study plans more effectively

31 Strategies Achievement strategies: study techniques that can be used to improve learning eg by aiding memorisation or improving note-taking Avoidance strategies: Techniques that can be used to overcome barriers to learning, eg by avoiding distraction or managing time better.

32 Distraction Reduction
Distraction Jingles I’ll just check my cellphone I’ll just look and see I’ll listen to my ipod And then I’ll watch TV

33 Distraction Jingles

34 Distraction Jingles I’ll just…………. I’ll just have some tea I’ll just………………. Has anyone ed me? Send a text/clean the fridge out next Go on Facebook/nothing left to cook Wash my hair/what shall I wear?


36 Distraction Contract The main ways I distract myself are:
___________________________________________ The distractions I most enjoy are: __________________________________________ From now on I am going to use these distractions as rewards: ____________________________________________ After ________ minutes’ work I can ________ for ________ minutes After ________ minutes’ work I can ________ for ________ Signed ___________________________________________________________ Witnessed ____________________________________________________________

37 Light Fantastic Worksheet 1 Task sheet: three boring tasks
1. Vocabulary task: Use the following words in sentences: seaside, planet, umbrella, envelope, canoe, waving. 2. Grammar task: Write five sentences using the past simple. 3. Writing task: Write a thank you letter. Discuss how you could use fantasy and humour to make the tasks more interesting.

38 Light Fantastic For example:
In the vocabulary task, you could make all the sentences connect to make a story about, for example, an alien from another planet who arrived in a canoe . . . In the grammar task you could write improbable sentences from your diary last week: Monday: I met Lily Allen at a party . . . In the writing task you could write a thank you letter to someone unlikely: Dear Puss, Thank you for sitting next to me and purring so loudly yesterday. It really cheered me up . . . .

39 Strategies Rap Define your expectations Give yourself rewards
Eliminate distractions Use time management Vary your workplace Add humour and imagination Practise relaxation Cultivate optimism Organise your work environment Get cooperation from friends


41 Strategies Rap Define your expectations: Situation/activation/motivation/dedication/education/application Give yourself some rewards: Applaud/afford/skateboard Eliminate distraction: Action/inaction/satisfaction Vary your workplace: Mental space

42 From Strategies to Achievement

43 Strategies to Achievement
Entails: making your study intentions public and charting your progress towards a long-term goal making contracts validating effort




47 References Arnett,J. (2002) The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist 57 (10) Boyatzis, R., and Akrivou, K. ( 2006) The ideal self as the driver of intentional change. Journal of Mangement Development 25 (7) Coetzee- Van Rooy,S. (2006) Integrativeness: Untenable for World Englishes learners? World Englishes 25 (3) Dornyei, Z., and Ushioda, E.(2009) Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self. Multilingual Matters. Gardner, R.C. ( 2001) Integrative motivation and second language acquistion in Z Dornyei and R Schmidt eds Motivation and Second Language Acquisition. University of Hawaii Press. Higgins, E. (1987) Self discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect . Psychological Review Higgins, E. ( 1996) The self-digest: Self knowledge serving self=regulatory functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology71, 10632 Higgins, E. ( 1998) promotion and Prevention : Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30, 1-46.

48 References Markus, H., and Nurius P. (1986) Possible Selves. American Psychologist 41, Markus H., and Ruvolo, A, (1989) possible Selves: Personalised representations of goals. In L.A. Pervin (ed) Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology . Lawrence Ehrbaum Markus, H. (2006) Foreword. In C. Dunkel and J. Kerpelman (eds) Possible Selves: Theory, Research and Applications : Nova Science. Noels, K. et al (2000) Why are you learning a second language: Learners’ orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning Segal, H. (2006) Possible selves, fantasy distortion and the anticipated life history: Exploring the role of imagination in social cognition. In C. Dunkel and J. Kerpelman (eds) Possible Selves:Theory, Research and Applications. Nova Science Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press Yashima, T. (200)) Orientations and motivations in foreign language learning: a study of Japanese college students. JACET Bulletin


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