3Future Possible Selves Possible Selves are individuals’ ideas ofwhat they could become,what they would like to become, andwhat they are afraid of becoming(Markus and Nurius, 1986)what they would like to be: the Ideal Self)what they feel they should be: the Ought To Self(Higgins 1998)
4Future Possible Selves This defines four future possible selves:The Ideal SelfThe Ought to SelfThe Feared SelfThe Default Self
5The Ideal Future L2 Self‘The ideal L2 self is a powerful motivator because we would like to reduce the discrepancy between our actual and ideal selves.’(Dornyei 2009)
6The Ideal L2 Self: seven steps Creating The VisionSubstantiating the VisionCounterbalancing the VisionUnifying the VisionEnhancing the VisionOperationalising the VisionKeeping the Vision Alive
11Operationalising the Vision You must understand, I am not by nature a daydreamer. I try to control those parts of my life that can be controlled, to plan everything that I want to happen down to the most insignificant detail. I traffic in a world in which fractions of a second separate success and failure, so I'd visualized the 1996 Olympics down to the millisecond. I'd crafted a decade of dreams into ambitions, refined ambitions into goals, and finally hammered goals into plans (Johnson, 1996; p. 14)
16Vision to Goals Entails: analysing vision into list of ambitions, and classifying these into those achievable within the syllabus, those which could be added in and those to be met by self-studyrevisiting original vision and breaking it down into list of long-term and short term goalsAdditional group dynamics aim : keeping the group together
20Personal Goal Statement Class Goals, eg:ask the way and understand directionsread a menu and order foodPersonal goals ( not covered by the syllabus),eg:rent a carunderstand street signs quicklyIn order to do this I will, eg:find some additional materials on car rentalsput in extra reading practice
22Goal breakdown: short term goals Class goals:By the end of the week we will:……………………………………………………………….Additional Personal Goals: By the end of the week I will:…………………………………………………………………I will spend ……… hours of self study to achieve this:Signed:Witnessed:
24Goals to Plans Entails: translating weekly goals into a study plan breaking down of short term or weekly goals into a series of concrete tasksthe ordering of these tasks into a timetable or study plan
25Goals to Plans This week in class we will: For homework we will: For self-study I will:
30Plans to Strategies Entails: Introducing students to a range of helpful techniques to improve their study efficiency and helping them to select those which work best for them in order to carry out their study plans more effectively
31StrategiesAchievement strategies: study techniques that can be used to improve learning eg by aiding memorisation or improving note-taking Avoidance strategies: Techniques that can be used to overcome barriers to learning, eg by avoiding distraction or managing time better.
32Distraction Reduction Distraction Jingles I’ll just check my cellphone I’ll just look and see I’ll listen to my ipod And then I’ll watch TV
36Distraction Contract The main ways I distract myself are: ___________________________________________The distractions I most enjoy are:__________________________________________From now on I am going to use these distractions as rewards:____________________________________________After ________ minutes’ work I can ________ for ________ minutesAfter ________ minutes’ work I can ________ for ________Signed ___________________________________________________________ Witnessed ____________________________________________________________
37Light Fantastic Worksheet 1 Task sheet: three boring tasks 1. Vocabulary task: Use the following words in sentences: seaside, planet, umbrella, envelope, canoe, waving.2. Grammar task: Write five sentences using the past simple.3. Writing task: Write a thank you letter.Discuss how you could use fantasy and humour to make the tasks more interesting.
38Light Fantastic For example: In the vocabulary task, you could make all the sentences connect to make a story about, for example, an alien from another planet who arrived in a canoe . . .In the grammar task you could write improbable sentences from your diary last week: Monday: I met Lily Allen at a party . . .In the writing task you could write a thank you letter to someone unlikely:Dear Puss,Thank you for sitting next to me and purring so loudly yesterday. It really cheered me up . . ..
39Strategies Rap Define your expectations Give yourself rewards Eliminate distractionsUse time managementVary your workplaceAdd humour and imaginationPractise relaxationCultivate optimismOrganise your work environmentGet cooperation from friends
41Strategies RapDefine your expectations: Situation/activation/motivation/dedication/education/application Give yourself some rewards: Applaud/afford/skateboard Eliminate distraction: Action/inaction/satisfaction Vary your workplace: Mental space
47ReferencesArnett,J. (2002) The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist 57 (10)Boyatzis, R., and Akrivou, K. ( 2006) The ideal self as the driver of intentional change. Journal of Mangement Development 25 (7)Coetzee- Van Rooy,S. (2006) Integrativeness: Untenable for World Englishes learners? World Englishes 25 (3)Dornyei, Z., and Ushioda, E.(2009) Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self. Multilingual Matters.Gardner, R.C. ( 2001) Integrative motivation and second language acquistion in Z Dornyei and R Schmidt eds Motivation and Second Language Acquisition. University of Hawaii Press.Higgins, E. (1987) Self discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect . Psychological ReviewHiggins, E. ( 1996) The self-digest: Self knowledge serving self=regulatory functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology71, 10632Higgins, E. ( 1998) promotion and Prevention : Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30, 1-46.
48ReferencesMarkus, H., and Nurius P. (1986) Possible Selves. American Psychologist 41,Markus H., and Ruvolo, A, (1989) possible Selves: Personalised representations of goals. In L.A. Pervin (ed) Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology . Lawrence EhrbaumMarkus, H. (2006) Foreword. In C. Dunkel and J. Kerpelman (eds) Possible Selves: Theory, Research and Applications : Nova Science.Noels, K. et al (2000) Why are you learning a second language: Learners’ orientations and self-determination theory. Language LearningSegal, H. (2006) Possible selves, fantasy distortion and the anticipated life history: Exploring the role of imagination in social cognition. In C. Dunkel and J. Kerpelman (eds) Possible Selves:Theory, Research and Applications. Nova ScienceWenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and identity. Cambridge University PressYashima, T. (200)) Orientations and motivations in foreign language learning: a study of Japanese college students. JACET Bulletin