# The Laws of Thermodynamics

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The Laws of Thermodynamics
Chapter 18 The Laws of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
We observe that heat always flows spontaneously from a warmer object to a cooler one, although the opposite would not violate the conservation of energy. This direction of heat flow is one of the ways of expressing the second law of thermodynamics: The Second Law of Thermodynamics: When objects of different temperatures are brought into thermal contact, the spontaneous flow of heat that results is always from the high temperature object to the low temperature object. Spontaneous heat flow never proceeds in the reverse direction.

Heat Engines A heat engine is a device that converts heat into work. A classic example is the steam engine. Fuel heats the water; the vapor expands and does work against the piston; the vapor condenses back into water again and the cycle repeats. All heat engines have: a working substance a high-temperature reservoir a low-temperature reservoir a cyclical engine

Efficiency of a Heat Engine
Assumption: ΔU = 0 for each cycle, else the engine would get hotter (or colder) with every cycle An amount of heat Qh is supplied from the hot reservoir to the engine during each cycle. Of that heat, some appears as work, and the rest, Qc, is given off as waste heat to the cold reservoir. The efficiency is the fraction of the heat supplied to the engine that appears as work.

Efficiency of a Heat Engine
The efficiency can also be written: In order for the engine to run, there must be a temperature difference; otherwise heat will not be transferred.

The maximum-efficiency heat engine is described in Carnot’s theorem:
If an engine operating between two constant-temperature reservoirs is to have maximum efficiency, it must be an engine in which all processes are reversible. In addition, all reversible engines operating between the same two temperatures, Tc and Th, have the same efficiency. This is an idealization; no real engine can be perfectly reversible.

The efficiency of the Carnot Cycle:

Maximum Work from a Heat Engine Cycle
The maximum work a heat engine can do is then: If the two reservoirs are at the same temperature, the efficiency is zero. The smaller the ratio of the cold temperature to the hot temperature, the closer the efficiency will be to 1.

The heat engine below is:
a) a reversible (Carnot) heat engine b) an irreversible heat engine c) a hoax d) none of the above Answer: b

The heat engine below is:
a) a reversible (Carnot) heat engine b) an irreversible heat engine c) a hoax d) none of the above Carnot e = 1 − TC/TH = 1 − 270/600 = 0.55. But by definition e = 1 − QL/QH = 1 − 4000/8000 = 0.5, smaller than Carnot e, thus irreversible.

Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
While heat will flow spontaneously only from a higher temperature to a lower one, it can be made to flow the other way if work is done on the system. Refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps all use work to transfer heat from a cold object to a hot object.

Refrigerators If we compare the heat engine and the refrigerator, we see that the refrigerator is basically a heat engine running backwards – it uses work to extract heat from the cold reservoir (the inside of the refrigerator) and exhausts to the kitchen. Note that - more heat is exhausted to the kitchen than is removed from the refrigerator.

Refrigerators An ideal refrigerator would remove the most heat from the interior while requiring the smallest amount of work. This ratio is called the coefficient of performance, COP: Typical refrigerators have COP values between 2 and 6. Bigger is better! An air conditioner is essentially identical to a refrigerator; the cold reservoir is the interior of the house, and the hot reservoir is outdoors.

Heat Pumps Finally, a heat pump is the same as an air conditioner, except with the reservoirs reversed. Heat is removed from the cold reservoir outside, and exhausted into the house, keeping it warm. Note that the work the pump does actually contributes to the desired result (a warmer house) in this case.

Heat Pump Efficiency In an ideal heat pump with two operating temperatures (cold and hot), the Carnot relationship holds; the work needed to add heat Qh to a room is: The COP for a heat pump:

Performance measures Engine: we want work with minimum energy (heat) input Refrigerator: we want maximum Qc removed for minimum cost of W Heat Pump: we want maximum QH added for minimum cost of W

Room Temperature You haven’t had time to install your new air condition in the window yet, so as a short-term measure you decide to place it on the dining-room table and turn it on to cool off a bit. As a result, does the air in the dining room: a) get warmer b) get cooler c) stay the same

Room Temperature You haven’t had time to install your new air condition in the window yet, so as a short-term measure you decide to place it on the dining-room table and turn it on to cool off a bit. As a result, does the air in the dining room: a) get warmer b) get cooler c) stay the same The AC motor must do work to pull heat from one side to the other. The heat that is exhausted is the heat drawn from the room plus the work done by the motor. The net effect is that the motor of the AC is adding heat to the room.

Gasoline engines (O)A AB BC CD DA Idealized Diesel cycle

Approaching absolute zero
The efficiency of a reversible engine: So a reversible engine has the following relation between the heat transferred and the reservoir temperatures: (irreversible engines ) so... how cold can we make something? As a system approaches absolute zero, heat becomes harder to extract

The Third Law of Thermodynamics
Absolute zero is a temperature that an object can get arbitrarily close to, but never attain. Temperatures as low as 2.0 x 10-8 K have been achieved in the laboratory, but absolute zero will remain ever elusive – there is simply nowhere to “put” that last little bit of energy. This is the third law of thermodynamics: It is impossible to lower the temperature of an object to absolute zero in a finite number of steps. * There is a concept of “negative temperature”, but it is based on a more subtle and general definition of temperature, and not the average kinetic energy of atoms

The Laws of Thermodynamics
A continuous system (which is not consuming internal energy) cannot output more work than it takes in heat energy I) ΔU = Q - W YOU CAN’T WIN! II) III) TC = 0 is not achievable YOU CAN’T BREAK EVEN!

Entropy A reversible engine has the following relation between the heat transferred and the reservoir temperatures: Rewriting, This quantity, Q/T, is the same for both reservoirs. This conserved quantity is defined as the change in entropy.

In a reversible heat engine, the entropy does not change.
Like internal energy, entropy is a state function Unlike energy, entropy is NOT conserved In a reversible heat engine, the entropy does not change.

Any irreversible process results in an increase of entropy.
A real engine will operate at a lower efficiency than a reversible engine; this means that less heat is converted to work. for irreversible processes Any irreversible process results in an increase of entropy.

Example: An irreversible engine operating between the temperatures of 550 K and 300 K extracts 1200 J of heat from the hot reservoir and produces 450 J of work. How much entropy is created in the process?

Entropy To generalize:
The total entropy of the universe increases whenever an irreversible process occurs. The total entropy of the universe is unchanged whenever a reversible process occurs. Since all real processes are irreversible, the entropy of the universe continually increases. If entropy decreases in a system due to work being done on it, a greater increase in entropy occurs outside the system.

Entropy Figure (a) A royal flush is a highly ordered poker hand with low probability of occurring. (b) A disordered and worthless poker hand. The probability of this particular hand occurring is the same as that of the royal flush. There are so many worthless hands, however, that the probability of being dealt a worthless hand is much higher than that of a royal flush.

Order, Disorder, and Entropy
Entropy can be thought of as the increase in disorder in the universe. In this diagram, the end state is less ordered than the initial state – the separation between low and high temperature areas has been lost.

Entropy As the total entropy of the universe increases, its ability to do work decreases. The excess heat exhausted during an irreversible process cannot be recovered into a more organized form of energy, or temperature difference. Doing that would require a net decrease in entropy, which is not possible. It’s the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Sooner or later everything turns to sh**. Woody Allen, in Husbands and wives (1992).

Life: Randomness to order?

Th-th-th-that’s all, Folks!
Good luck on the final exam and beyond.