2Similarities in Matthew and Luke Examples:Both in the time of HerodMary is a virginJesus is conceived through the Holy SpiritJesus is identified as the Son of DavidName of Jesus imposed by heavenJesus is a SaviourJesus born in Bethlehem, after Mary and Joseph have been living together as man and wifeJoseph, Mary and Jesus settle in Nazareth
3Differences in Matthew and Luke Angel appears to Joseph to tell him of Mary’s impending birth of Jesus (1:20)Jesus born in a house (1:10)Magi from the East follow a star (2:1)Angel appears to Joseph, after Jesus is born, & tells them to flee to Egypt (2:13-15)Jesus’ birth is fulfilling Old Testament prophesiesLUKEAngel appears to Mary to tell her of impending birth of Jesus (1:26)Jesus born in a manger (2:7)Angels appear to shepherds in the fields (2:9-16)Mary & Joseph go to Bethlehem for the census before the birth of Jesus (2:4-5)Jesus had fulfilled what the Holy Spirit had revealed to Simeon (prophet outside the Temple)
4Structure and Emphasis in Matthew Being a Jewish Christian, Matthew’s concern is to show Jesus as fulfilling the prophesies and hopes of the Jewish people
5Jesus is compared to Moses: 1. Matthew models his account on the birth of Moses - the most important religious authority in Judaism2. Jesus escapes the massacre of the infants (Mt 2:16) as Moses did (Ex 2:3)3. They both travel to Egypt (compare Ex 4:19 and Mt 2:19)4. Moses leads the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt saving them (Ex ch. 12 & 13) ….Jesus will save his people from their sins (Mt 1:21)5. Moses is seen as the teacher and Law-giver in Judaism – he receives the Law of God (10 commandments) on Mount Sinai, and teaches the people of Israel….Jesus is shown as a teacher and Law-giver – he teaches from a mountain (eg Mt ch. 5)
6Jesus is compared to Moses: Purpose 1. By parallelling Jesus with Moses Matthew is emphasising Jesus’ great importance for the Jewish people2. Matthew presents Jesus as the “New Moses” - teacher and Law-giver who has authority from God. He is the “fulfilment” of the law and therefore the messiah the Jews have been waiting for.
7Matthew use of Prophesy Matthew structures his narrative around the Jewish scriptures ...he does this 5 times – see (1:18-25; 2:1-12; 2:13-15; 2:16-18; 2:19-23)
8Matthew use of Prophesy: Purpose To reassure the Jewish audience – they do not lose their Jewish heritage by following ChristMatthew shows that all the events surrounding Jesus happened in order to fulfil what was written in the prophets and he is therefore the fulfilment of Jewish hopes.
9Matthew includes the Visitors from the East Matthew depicts important visitors from the east – therefore Gentiles - greeting and honouring the infant Jesus
10Matthew includes the Visitors from the East: Purpose Showing that Gentiles were accepting Jesus – indicates his significance – they are the first to recognise Jesus as King of the Jews.They may have been kings reverencing Jesus – indicates Jesus’ divinity being honoured by earth’s kings.This passage is consoling to Jewish Christian’s at the time (who were being excommunicated from the Jewish community), because even at his birth gentiles rather than Jews were accepting Jesus.
11Matthews primary concerns To show Jesus represents both:CONTINUITY-(Jesus fulfills the Law and prophecies about the Messiah)andDISCONTINUITY –(Jesus establishes a new Church)The GOOD NEWS is not only for the Jews but for the whole world (eg seen in Wise Men at birth)
12In Summary………..Matthew has Jesus primarily concerned with the salvation of Israel (15:21 – 28)Matthew is also concerned with the Law and how Jesus fulfills the LawMatthews theology of salvation is that the Good News was firstly given to the Jews, has been rejected by them and is now offered to the Gentiles.Geography shows this: Jesus begins ministry in Galilee, meets disciples there (Jewish territory) then sends them out to the whole world (ie. from Jewish to pagan/Gentile territory)
13Structure and Emphasis in Luke Luke, writing predominantly for Gentile Christians, emphasises salvation for all people – especially the oppressed, the poor, outcasts, sinners……
14Luke compares the Birth of Jesus to the birth of John the Baptist: Read 1:5-25, 57-80EG: both births are foretold by the angel Gabriel; both are born under the influence of the Holy Spirit, both are named through divine inspiration, both will do God’s work.
15Luke compares the Birth of Jesus to the birth of John the Baptist: Purpose To demonstrate the transition of one epoch (period of history) – the Epoch of Israel – represented by John the Baptist to a new epoch – the Christian Epoch – represented by Jesus.Luke wishes the reader to recognise that Jesus and John are “twin agents of God’s salvation.”The stories not only parallel each other, there is “step-parallelism” used as a literary devise – in order to reveal the significance of who Jesus is.EG: John is great in the sight of the Lord (1:15), Jesus will be called the Lord (2:11); John will be filled with the Holy Spirit (1:15), Jesus is born in the Holy Spirit (1:35)
16Luke’s Structure stresses symbolism: Shepherds: Shepherds were a poor, and despised class of people – their occupation did not allow for obeying all Jewish laws (eg time for prayer and cleanliness) – therefore they were considered sinners.Purpose: In contrast to Matthew (who depicts wealthy and influential people greeting Jesus) Luke has the poor and sinners greeting the child…..showing that Jesus has come for all people, the poor and sinful included.
17Luke’s Structure stresses symbolism: No Room: Not only are the lowly attracted to Jesus, but Jesus himself assumed the condition of the lowly –Purpose: To show that Jesus was born poor and homeless and therefore is identified with them.
18Luke’s Structure stresses symbolism: Manger: Jesus is placed in a manger – the trough out of which the animals feed.Purpose: To accentuate his poverty further.This is also symbolic that just as animals feed from a manger, humanity is going to be fed by Jesus
19Luke stresses Great Joy Luke’s writing is joyful – Luke’s characters are spirit-filled people rejoicing over what God has done for them.EG: The angels proclaim to the shepherds “good news of a great joy which will come to all people” (2:10); Many of the characters bless, or praise God for what he has done for them – Mary proclaims: “My soul magnifies the Lord, my spirit rejoices in God my saviour.” (1:46-47)
20Luke stresses Great Joy: Purpose Luke is living in a time when many Gentiles are converting to Christianity – the message of Jesus is spreading out to the world – Luke depicts this as a joyful event because a “Saviour” has been born for “all people.”
21Luke’s major Themes & Concerns Salvation is UNIVERSAL- everyone including poor and Gentiles are invited into the Kingdom of Godeg. Jesus born in poverty; shepherds visitingMESSIANIC JOY –eg. Magnificat; angels singing; shepherds joy; Elizabeths joy3. Profile of WOMEN –eg. Mary – visit by angel; song of praiseHOLY SPIRIT –eg. Jesus, John the Baptist, Elizabeth, Zechariah all filled with the Holy Spirit