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Renewable Energy Section 1- Renewable Energy Today.

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1 Renewable Energy Section 1- Renewable Energy Today

2 Renewable Energy Energy from sources constantly being formedEnergy from sources constantly being formed Use needs to be increasedUse needs to be increased

3 Solar Power Sun Passive Solar Heating –Uses heat from sun directly –Large windows face directly into sun –N. hemisphere- south windows

4 Solar Power Active Solar HeatingActive Solar Heating –Gathered by collectors –Usually mounted on roof –Heats water in collector and transfers throughout home

5 Solar Power Photovoltaic Cells- solar cells –Use sun energy to produce a small amt. of electricity –Can be stored in batteries –Efficient and less expensive –Good for developing countries

6 Wind Power- Cheap and Abundant Uneven heating from sun causes windUneven heating from sun causes wind Wind turbines can convert into electricityWind turbines can convert into electricity CheapCheap Wind Farms- Large arrays of wind turbinesWind Farms- Large arrays of wind turbines Problem transporting electricity from rural to urban areasProblem transporting electricity from rural to urban areas

7 Wind Farm

8 Biomass- Power from Living Things Biomass fuel- any organic matter used for energyBiomass fuel- any organic matter used for energy –Ex: Wood, organic trash and manure –Burning can release air pollution –Methane gas from decomposition

9 Biomass- Power from Living Things Alcohol- Liquid fuel derived from biomass –Ethanol- from fermenting fruit or agricultural waste; corn is major source –Gasohol- gasoline + ethanol Less air pollution

10 Hydroelectricity- Power from Moving Water 20% of worlds electricity20% of worlds electricity Dams hold water- reservoirDams hold water- reservoir Released to turn a turbineReleased to turn a turbine Benefits:Benefits: –Inexpensive –No air pollution –Last longer than power plants –Provide: flood control, drinking water, agriculture, industry, and recreation

11

12 Hydroelectricity- Power from Moving Water Disadvantages:Disadvantages: –Disruption of ecosystems; Ex: Salmon –Displacement of people –Farmland below dams less fertile Future:Future: Micro-hydropower- Floating turbine in a small streamMicro-hydropower- Floating turbine in a small stream

13 Geothermal Energy- Power from the Earth Energy from heat in the water deposits of the earths crustEnergy from heat in the water deposits of the earths crust Geothermal pumps- heated water to turbine and recycle back for reheatingGeothermal pumps- heated water to turbine and recycle back for reheating –U.S. worlds largest producer –Ex: The Geysers in CA-1.7 million houses

14 Geothermal Energy

15 Geothermal Heat Pumps- Energy for Homes 600,000 homes in U.S.600,000 homes in U.S. Stable underground temperatures year-round allows for heating and cooling all yearStable underground temperatures year-round allows for heating and cooling all year Ground cooler in summer and warmer in winterGround cooler in summer and warmer in winter

16 Geothermal Heat Pump

17 Chapter 18- Renewable Energy Section 2- Alternative Energy and Conservation

18 Alternative Energy Energy sources that do not use fossil fuels and are still in developmentEnergy sources that do not use fossil fuels and are still in development Viable if cost effective and environmental effects are acceptableViable if cost effective and environmental effects are acceptable Research with govt investmentResearch with govt investment

19 Tidal Power Tide- movement of water caused by gravitational b/w sun, moon and EarthTide- movement of water caused by gravitational b/w sun, moon and Earth –Twice a day, rise and fall –Used to generate electricity in France, Russia and Canada –France and Britain used over 1000 yrs ago High tides come in, trapped by a dam After low tide, dam opens to allow water to rush out spinning a turbine to generate electricity Cost is high to build and maintain Few siutable locations

20 Tidal Power

21 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Warm surface water boils sea water at low temp. in a vacuumWarm surface water boils sea water at low temp. in a vacuum Steam spins a turbine to generate electricitySteam spins a turbine to generate electricity Cold water from deep ocean cool steam back into liquid to be used againCold water from deep ocean cool steam back into liquid to be used again Not cost effective and effects of pumping large amounts of cold water to surface are unknownNot cost effective and effects of pumping large amounts of cold water to surface are unknown

22 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

23 Hydrogen- A Future Fuel Source? Most abundant element in universe can be burned as fuelMost abundant element in universe can be burned as fuel No carbon-no pollution!No carbon-no pollution! When burned combines with oxygen to form water vapor and nitrogen oxideWhen burned combines with oxygen to form water vapor and nitrogen oxide Can split molecules of water or grow plants to produce hydrogen cost effectivelyCan split molecules of water or grow plants to produce hydrogen cost effectively

24 Challenge of Hydrogen Fuel Takes a lot of energy to produceTakes a lot of energy to produce Use of fossil fuels to split atoms pollutesUse of fossil fuels to split atoms pollutes –Can use solar or wind power –Can store in tanks and transport in pipes –Could use as it is produced in fuel cells

25 Fuel Cells Produces electricity chemically by combining H with OProduces electricity chemically by combining H with O Can be fueled by anything w/ large amounts of H, such as gasoline, natural gas and alcoholCan be fueled by anything w/ large amounts of H, such as gasoline, natural gas and alcohol Could continue to use gasoline stationsCould continue to use gasoline stations

26 Energy Efficiency Percentage of energy put into a system that does useful workPercentage of energy put into a system that does useful work Energy efficiency =Energy efficiency = Energy Out X 100 Energy In Energy Out X 100 Energy In First Law of Thermodynamics- Energy in must equal energy out; much lost as heatFirst Law of Thermodynamics- Energy in must equal energy out; much lost as heat

27 Energy Efficiency Over 40% of commercial energy is wastedOver 40% of commercial energy is wasted –Fuel-wasting vehicles, furnaces, and appliances –Leaky, poorly insulated buildings Could save by:Could save by: –Fuel cells instead of internal combustion engines –Increase public transportation –Fluorescent instead of incandescent lights

28 Hybrid Cars Small, efficient gasoline engines with also an electric motor for extra powerSmall, efficient gasoline engines with also an electric motor for extra power Convert braking energy into electricity to store in batteryConvert braking energy into electricity to store in battery Shut off gas engine to save fuel when sittingShut off gas engine to save fuel when sitting Aerodynamics make less energy for accelerationAerodynamics make less energy for acceleration Cost a little bit more, but less to refuel and pollute lessCost a little bit more, but less to refuel and pollute less

29 Hybrids

30 Cogeneration Production of two useful forms of energy from same fuel sourceProduction of two useful forms of energy from same fuel source –Ex: Waste heat from an industrial furnace can run a steam turbine for electricity –Can supply heat and electricity to multiple buildings –Small units now available in U.S.

31 Energy Conservation- Saving Energy Cities and TownsCities and Towns –Plug leaks around windows and doors –Replace inefficient furnaces –Insulate water heaters –EX: Osage, Iowa saved over $1 million a year; boosted economy Around the Home –$1,200/year per home; lost energy through poor insulation –Seal doors and windows (replace w/high efficiency windows)

32 Save Energy Around the Home

33 Conservation in Daily Life Use less of any resource to save energyUse less of any resource to save energy Wash clothes in cold water for less energy usage (25% of heat usage)Wash clothes in cold water for less energy usage (25% of heat usage) Conservation Tips: –Walk or ride a bike on short trips –Carpool or use public transportation –Drive a fuel-efficient automobile –Choose ENERGY STAR* products –Recycle and buy recycled products –Set computers to sleep mode when not in use


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