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Biology AHSGE Standard IV- Cell Organelles. Biology AHSGE Biology Standard 4. Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology AHSGE Standard IV- Cell Organelles. Biology AHSGE Biology Standard 4. Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology AHSGE Standard IV- Cell Organelles

2 Biology AHSGE Biology Standard 4. Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables. A. Identify cell structures including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, vacuole, chloroplast, and mitochondrion. B. Classify organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

3 Cells Cells- the smallest unit of life –Discovered by Robert Hooke The Cell Theory- All living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure for all life, and all cells come from other cells. –Developed by Schwann, Schleiden and Virchow

4 Cells Unicellular- Organism composed of only one cell –Kingdoms: Monera (Archaebacteria and Eubacteria) and Protista Mutlicellular- Organism composed of more than one cell –Kingdoms: Fungi, Plantae and Animalia Prokaryotic- Cells without a nucleus or membrane- bound organelles –Kingdom Monera (Archaebacteria and Eubacteria)- bacteria, blue-green algae and viruses Eukaryotic- Cells containing a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles –Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia *** Remember pro-no; eu-true

5 Cells

6 Organelles- Structures found within or on a cell which contain specific functions Nucleus- Control Center –Controls all intracellular activity –Contains DNA (genetic material, hereditary information, chromosomes, chromatin) –Nucleolus- Center of nucleus where transcription occurs –Nuclear membrane (envelope)- Outer covering of a nucleus which controls materials passage into and out of cell

7 Organelles Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane)- Outer covering of a cell –Gives cells their shape –Protects the cell by controlling the passage of materials into and out of the cell –Composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins Fluid mosaic model - creates a sea in which molecules can float Bilayer is tail to tail Heads are on the outside, polar and attracted to water which is also polar Tails make up the non-polar middle of the bilayer which repels water-soluble substances

8 Organelles Cell Membrane contd: –Receptors- proteins found on the outside of the membrane which transmit signals into the cell –Inner surface proteins anchor the membrane to the cells internal support structures giving it shape –Transport proteins- move needed substances or waste materials through the membrane –Cholesterol- Prevents the fatty-acid tails from sticking together aiding the fluidity of the membrane –Carbohydrates aid the receptors in identifying chemical signals

9 Cell Membrane

10 Organelles Cytoplasm (cytosol)- Jelly-like substance that fills the cell –Cushions and protects the organelles from damage –Allows for organelles to float

11 Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum- –Membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as a site for ribosome attachment –Always some attached to the outside of the nucleus –Smooth- Has no ribosomes –Rough- Contains ribosomes Associated with protein synthesis

12 Organelles Ribosomes- Responsible for protein synthesis –Use amino acids from RNA code

13 Organelles Mitochondria- Power house –Produces energy (ATP) from glucose –Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is stored energy Converted to ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) to release energy from the broken bond

14 Organelles Golgi Complex (body, apparatus)- Factory or Warehouse –Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into sacs called vesicles –Vesicles fuse with membrane to release materials to the outside environment during active transport (exocytosis)

15 Organelles Lysosome- Digest excess or worn-out organelles and food particles –Suicide sacs

16 Organelles Cytoskeleton- A supporting network of long, thin protein fibers form a framework for the cell and provide an anchor for the organelles inside the cell –Microfilament- Thin, protein threads that help give cell shape and parts to move –Microtubule- Long, hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton and assist in movement of substances

17 Organelles Centrioles- Groups of microtubules that that function during cell division –Not found in plant cells

18 Organelles Vacuole- Membrane- bound, fluid-filled organelle responsible for storage –Sometimes for ingestion, digestion, excretion, and expulsion of excess water

19 Organelles Chloroplasts- Organelles that contain chlorophyll which captures energy from sunlight –Convert light energy from sun into chemical energy (glucose) during photosynthesis –Thylakoids- Inside/many small disk-shaped compartments of chlorophyll –Belong to a group of cells called plastids –Not found in animal cells

20 Organelles Cell Wall- Thick, rigid mesh of fibers that surrounds the plasma membrane for extra structure and support –Allows plants to stand at various heights –Made of cellulose

21 Organelles Cilia (cilium)- Short, numerous projections on the outside of some cells that look like hairs –Wave movement for locomotion –Found on respiratory tract and fallopian tubes –Paramecium Flagella (flagellum)- Long, less numerous projections on the outside of some cells that look like tails –Whip-like movement for locomotion –Found on sperm cells –Euglena

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23 Plant vs. Animal


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