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Chapter 20-Reptiles 43DD-83E5-F640422CEFB4&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20-Reptiles 43DD-83E5-F640422CEFB4&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20-Reptiles 43DD-83E5-F640422CEFB4&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

2 Class Reptilia Snakes, lizards, skinks, turtles, and crocodilians Strong, bony skeleton and toes w/claws Ectothermic metabolismEctothermic metabolism Dry, scaly skin Amniotic eggsAmniotic eggs Respiration through well-developed lungs Ventricle of heart partly divided by a septum Internal fertilization

3 Ectothermic Metabolism Metabolism too slow to generate own body heat Intolerance to cold-become sluggish and unable to function Absorb heat from environment –Basking –Basking in sun to heat up –Shade to cool down –Maintain relatively constant by alternating

4 Sun Basking

5 Water Retention Do not lose water through skin or require water to reproduce like amphibians Skin -light and flexible scales Overlapping minimizes water loss Enables reptiles to live in dry environments Overlapping Scales

6 Watertight Eggs Fertilized eggs need moisture to develop Internal fertilization allows for moisture to surround eggs Amniotic eggAmniotic egg- Tough- shelled egg containing a water and food supply –Most reptiles –All birds –Some mammals Amniotic Eggs

7 Respiration Lungs w/many folds increase gas exchanging surface Strong muscles attach to rib sage aid expansion and contraction of lungs Incomplete septum separates ventricle of heart –Crocodilians have completely divided ventricle Complete septum separates atrium of heart More separation of oxygen-rich and oxygen- poor blood Oxygen delivered to body cells more efficiently

8 Reptilian Heart Structure

9 Reproduction Internal fertilizationInternal fertilization- Male introduces semen directly into females body –Protects gametes from drying out Oviparous (most)- Young hatch from eggs –Most cases parents do not protect Ovoviviparous (some)- Female retains eggs in body until just before hatching; sometimes hatching occurs in mother –Eggs less vulnerable to predation Nourishment of eggs from yolk

10 Order Squamata Includes lizards and snakes Lower jaw loosely connected to skull Mostly carnivores; some herbivores Mouth opens wide to accommodate prey Extremely successful predators 8&vm=r&fr=yfp-t-501&tnr=21&vid=

11 Order Squamata/Suborder Sauria- Lizards Mostly small (<30 cm) Largest: Kimodo dragons (<3 m) Tail may break off to avoid predation (regenerates w/no vertebrae) Molt skin periodically Include: –Iguanas –Chameleons –Geckos –Anoles –Horned lizards –Monitors –Skinks 8&js=1&vm=r&fr=yfp-t-501&tnr=20&vid=

12 Order Squamata/Suborder Sauria- Lizards Green IguanaVeiled chameleonLeopard Gecko Anole Texas horned lizard Nile monitor

13 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes- Snakes Legless w/no eyelids nor external ears –No pectoral girdle –Five-point movement in jaw –Elastic ligament allows lower jaw to spread –No chewing or cutting teeth –Ovoviviparous –2/3 in family Colubridae and non- venomous Gaboon viper Green tree python

14 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes- Snakes Several hundred vertebrae Jacobsons Organs- Depressions in roof of mouth detect smell Feeding: All snakes subdue prey and swallow whole –Constrictors squeeze prey until suffocation Anacondas, boas, pythons, and king snakes Ball python 8&js=1&vm=r&fr=yfp-t-501&tnr=20&vid=

15 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes/Family Boidae- Constrictor Snakes Anaconda Emerald tree boa Banded king snakeScarlet king snake

16 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes- Snakes Venomous snakes –Modified salivary glands produce venom to inject into prey with grooved or hollow teeth –Families: Elapidae- Cobras, kraits, mambas, taipans, and coral snakes Hydrophiidae- Sea snakes Viperidae- Rattlesnakes, moccasins, adders, vipers and copperheads

17 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes- Venomous Snakes Coral snakeKing cobra Krait Sea snake Puff adderEyelash viper

18 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes- Venomous Snakes Water mocassin (a.k.a. Cottonmouth) Copperhead

19 Order Squamata/Suborder Serpentes- Rattlesnakes Rattle- 5 to 7 rings of keratin and protein New ring each molt Pit organ- Openings between eye and nostril detect infrared Venom- Hemotoxin affects red blood cells causing hemorrhaging Timber rattlesnakeDiamondback rattlesnake

20 Order Squamata/Suborder Amphisbaenia- Worm Lizards ~ 135 species Amphis – double; baen – to walk –Move easily backwards and forwards Burrowers Unique single median tooth on upper jaw Annuli – ring-like folds in skin Oviparous – Feed on worms and small insects

21 Order Chelonia (Testudines)- Turtles and Tortoises 250 species Body encased in shell –Bony plates covered w/leathery skin –Vertebrae fused to dorsal –Provides support for muscles –Some for protection –Carapace- dorsal part of the shell –Plastron- Ventral No teeth;powerful beak Many herbivores; some carnivores Gopher tortoise Giant tortoise

22 Order Chelonia (Testudines)- Turtles and Tortoises Turtles- Stream-lined, disk-shaped shell for water movement Tortoises- Dome- shaped shell Alligator snapping turtle Box turtle Sea turtle

23 Order Crocodilia- Alligators, Crocodiles, Caimans, and Gavials Large aggressive carnivores Capture prey by stealth, drowns, and eats Eyes and nostrils on top of head to allow for seeing and breathing while under water Strong neck w/large mouth (100s of sharp teeth) Throat valve prevents water entering into lungs Uniquely care for young after hatching Caiman Gavial

24 Order Crocodilia- Alligators, Crocodiles, Caimans, and Gavials American alligatorNile crocodile 422D-A596-B407CE406BE1&blnFromSearch=1

25 Order Rhynchocephalia- Tuataras Native to New Zealand Lizard-like Uniquely active at low temp./night Unchanged for 150 million yrs. 2 species –Genus Sphenodon

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