Presentation on theme: "Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins"— Presentation transcript:
1 Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins Biology AHSGEStandard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins
2 Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins CONTENT STANDARD 8. Identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and protein.ELIGIBLE CONTENTA. Recognize that amino acids make up protein.B. Recognize that proteins can function as enzymes.C. Compare the functions of DNA and RNA in the production of protein.D. Identify patterns of base pairing of DNA and RNA.E. Recognize DNA as making up genes and chromosomes.
3 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Double HelixDouble stranded; twisted ladderFound in the form of chromosomesGenes- Relatively small segment of DNA that codes for the synthesis of a specific protein. Model developed by Watson and CrickNucleotide- Base, sugar and phosphate group
4 DNALong strands (sides) of DNA molecule- alternating sugars and phosphates; phosphodiester bondsDeoxyribose- sugar of DNARungs of the ladder made of nitrogen-base pairsHeld together by a hydrogen bondsFour bases:Adenine-Thymine (2 H bonds)Guanine-Cytosine (3 H bonds)Purines: A and GPyrimidines: T and COrder makes up the code for specific characteristics in the body
5 DNA ReplicationDuplication (copying) of DNA strandsDNA Helicase splits DNA molecule in half/2 templates or parental strandsSingle stranded binding proteins (SSBs) keep from joining backReplication fork- Point of DNA separationRNA Primase brings in starter nucleotidesDNA Polymerase binds complimentary strands of DNA to the Primase starterLeading strand continuously growsLagging strand grows in sections (Okazaki fragments) in the opposite directionLigase fills in gaps
6 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Single-strandedRibose- sugar of RNAFour bases:Adenine-UracilCytosine-GuanineNotice, Thymine is replaced with UracilTranscription- Making Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA (Occurs in nucleolus)DNA unzips and complementary RNA nucleotides are paired up with DNA nucleotidesPromoter- Signals where transcription begins (TATA box)
7 Protein Synthesis mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosome 3 mRNA bases (codon) will pair with a complimentary tRNA base triplet (anticodon)- AUG- start codon begins on the P site of the ribosomeTransfer RNA (tRNA) anticodons specify certain amino acids- New tRNA molecules bring in a.a. to the A siteAmino acids from the P and A sites are linked by peptide bonds on the ribosomes- Used tRNA molecules exit from the P site, the A site tRNA moves over and a new tRNA comes inLinked amino acids become proteins on the ribosomesProteins- Build cell structures and function as enzymes to speed up/regulate cell processes