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Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins

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1 Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins
Biology AHSGE Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins

2 Standard VIII- DNA, RNA and Proteins
CONTENT STANDARD 8. Identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and protein. ELIGIBLE CONTENT A. Recognize that amino acids make up protein. B. Recognize that proteins can function as enzymes. C. Compare the functions of DNA and RNA in the production of protein. D. Identify patterns of base pairing of DNA and RNA. E. Recognize DNA as making up genes and chromosomes.

3 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Double Helix Double stranded; twisted ladder Found in the form of chromosomes Genes- Relatively small segment of DNA that codes for the synthesis of a specific protein.  Model developed by Watson and Crick Nucleotide- Base, sugar and phosphate group

4 DNA Long strands (sides) of DNA molecule- alternating sugars and phosphates; phosphodiester bonds Deoxyribose- sugar of DNA Rungs of the ladder made of nitrogen-base pairs Held together by a hydrogen bonds Four bases: Adenine-Thymine (2 H bonds) Guanine-Cytosine (3 H bonds) Purines: A and G Pyrimidines: T and C Order makes up the code for specific characteristics in the body

5 DNA Replication Duplication (copying) of DNA strands DNA Helicase splits DNA molecule in half/2 templates or parental strands Single stranded binding proteins (SSBs) keep from joining back Replication fork- Point of DNA separation RNA Primase brings in starter nucleotides DNA Polymerase binds complimentary strands of DNA to the Primase starter Leading strand continuously grows Lagging strand grows in sections (Okazaki fragments) in the opposite direction Ligase fills in gaps

6 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Single-stranded Ribose- sugar of RNA Four bases: Adenine-Uracil Cytosine-Guanine Notice, Thymine is replaced with Uracil Transcription- Making Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA (Occurs in nucleolus) DNA unzips and complementary RNA nucleotides are paired up with DNA nucleotides Promoter- Signals where transcription begins (TATA box)

7 Protein Synthesis mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosome
3 mRNA bases (codon) will pair with a complimentary tRNA base triplet (anticodon) - AUG- start codon begins on the P site of the ribosome Transfer RNA (tRNA) anticodons specify certain amino acids - New tRNA molecules bring in a.a. to the A site Amino acids from the P and A sites are linked by peptide bonds on the ribosomes - Used tRNA molecules exit from the P site, the A site tRNA moves over and a new tRNA comes in Linked amino acids become proteins on the ribosomes Proteins- Build cell structures and function as enzymes to speed up/regulate cell processes

8 Protein Synthesis Translation Transcription

9 DNA to RNA to Proteins

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