2Class Mammalia Includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth.Two identifying characteristics:Hair/furMammary glands which produce milk
3Characteristics of Mammals EndothermicWell-developed brains
4Characteristics of Mammals Heart has 4 chambersDiaphragm (muscle) aids in breathing
5Characteristics Mammals have single lower jaw Most species have 4 different types of teeth: Incisors, canines, cuspids, and bicuspidsVarious types of teeth for different diets
6Characteristics Mostly viviparous (live birth) Females secrete milk from mammary glands to feed newborn young.
7Distinguishing Features Two features distinguish them from other invertebrates: hair and production of milk.
8Class MammaliaSubclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structureSubclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skullInfraclass Ornithodelphia- MonotremesInfraclass Metatheria- MarsupialsInfraclass Eutheria- Placentals
9Order Monotremata Oviparous or egg laying mammals Only 3 in existence Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaters called echidna.Not completely endothermic (their body temperature is lower and fluctuates more than other mammals)Mammae without nipplesEdentulous as adultsLimbs modified forswimming or diggingAustralia and New Guinea
10Duck-Billed Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Only member of the mammal family OrnithorhynchidaeGreek platys meaning broad and pous meaning footSeveral reptilian characteristics: same opening for reproduction and eliminating waste products, the ability to lay eggsThe world's only venomous furred animalSpur on hind footFemales loose after one yearBill contains an electro-receptor system
11Echidna (Spiny Anteater) Tachyglossus aculeatus "Echidna" derives from the Latin word for "viper”Tongue protrudes like a snakeNocturnalTerrestrial and burrowingFemales normally lay only one egg
13Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupials) Old classification placed all marsupials in a single orderMore recent classifications have recognized the diversity and radiation of MarsupialsMarsupials now separated into seven ordersRange, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Guinea, adjacent islands
14Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupialia) Order Didelphimorphia Opossums Order Paucituberculata Rat Opossums Order Microbiotheria Monito del monte Order Dasyuromorphia Thylacines, numbats,dasyures Order Peramelemorphia Bandicoots Order Notoryctemorphia Marsupial mole Order Diprotodontia Koalas, wombats,kangaroos, etc
15250 species of marsupial species exist in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, And the Americas .Tasmanian Devil
16MarsupialsGive birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples
17They attach themselves to milk secreting nipples nursing until they are mature enough to survive outside the pouch.
27Characteristics of Placentals 95% of all mammalsCarry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood
28Placental Characteristics The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing youngGestation period-is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus
29Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water. Some mammals can fly!Malaysian Fruit Bat
30Order Insectivora Consists of 400 species Includes shrews and moles
31Order InsectivoraSmall animals with high metabolic rate and found in North America, Europe, and Asia.Most have long pointed noses that enable them to grub for insects, worms, and invertebrates.Live on ground, trees, in water, and underground.
32Order Rodentia Largest mammalian order having over 2,400 species. On every continent except for AntarcticaIncludes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, and porcupines.Chipmunk
34Only two incisors in each jaw, grow as long as rodent lives, and used for gnawing
35Order LagomorphaIncludes rabbits, hares, and small mountain mammals called pikas.Found worldwideWarrens- families of rabbitsHarePika
36Rabbits vs. Hares Rabbits are smaller and slower Shorter ears and hind legs with smaller feetSolid colored furA young rabbit is a bunnyAltricialHares are generally larger and fasterHares have longer ears, longer hind legs, and larger feetHares have black markings on their furA young hare is called a leveretPrecocial
37Order LagomorphaDouble row of incisors, large front teeth backed with two smaller ones, adaptation for herbivorous diet.
38Order Edentata/Xenarthra Made up of 30 living species including anteaters, armadillos, and sloths.The name edentate means “without teeth”Those with teeth have single root with teeth and no enamel
40Anteater feeding at a Termite mound Edentates have adaptations for insectivorous diets, including a long, sticky tongue and clawed front pawsAnteater feeding at a Termite mound
41Sloths, on the other hand have continuously growing teeth as an adaptation for grinding plants
42Chiroptera Made up of over 900 species of bats Live throughout the world except in polar environments
43A bat’s wing is modified front limb which skin membrane between extremely long finger bones Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, or grasping
44Order ChiropteraMost bats are active at night and have a special way to navigate using echolocation (bouncing off high-frequency sound waves)Frequency of returning sound waves with the size, distance, and rate of movement of different objects
45Order ChiropteraBats that use echolocation have small eyes and large ears.Feed on insects and have teeth specialized for such diets
46Some feed on fruit and flower nectar and do not use echolocation. These bats are sometimes called flying foxes, have large eyes and keen sense of smell.
47Orders Cetacea and Sirenia 90 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises are distributed worldwide.Cetaceans have fishlike bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers.
48Cetaceans divided into two groups which are toothed whales and baleen whales. Toothed whales include beaked whales, sperm whales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises.Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons
49Have over 100 teethPrey on fish, squid, seals and whales
50Baleen whales lack teeth Baleen-thin plates of finger like material for filtering food from waterShrimp and other small invertebrates are the prey of the baleen whales.
51The Order Sirenia is made up of four species of manatees and dugongs.
52Front limbs are flippers for swimming Sirenians lack hind legs but have flattened tails.
53Order Carnivora250 living species in carnivoria are distributed worldwideMost of the species mainly eat meat, which explains the name.About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears, raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters
54Some members of this order such as bears feed extensively on plant material as well as meat, so they are called omnivores.Carnivores generally have long canine teeth, strong jaws, clawed toes.Highly developed sense of smell and a large braincase
55Suborder PinnipediaPinnipedia are water dwelling carnivores and have streamlined bodiesSea lions (ear flaps), seals (no ear flaps) and walruses (elongated canines)
56Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla Ungulates-hoofed mammalsThese two classes are herbivores.Mostly grazers/browsersRuminants- four chambered stomachThe first three chambers are for storage (rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme) to aid in breakdown of cellulose“Chewing the cud”Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes double digestion.
57Order Artiodactyla Ungulates with an even amount of toes Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle
58Order Perissodactyla- Ungulates with an odd number of toes - Horses, rhins, zebras, and tapirs
59Order Proboscidea Characterized by a boneless nose or proboscis Elephants are the largest land dwellers alive today, weighing more than 6 tons.African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asian species
60It has modified incisors, called tusks, for digging up roots and stripping bark from branches.
61Order Primates200 living species of primates classified as prosimians.Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, gibbons, and great apes
62Grasping digits with free-moving limbs Finger and toenails Omnivorous dietsUnspecialized teethGrasping digits with free-moving limbsFinger and toenailsA complex brain has enabled anthropoids to develop behaviors and to live in highly organized social groups.Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups