2 Class Mammalia Includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth.Two identifying characteristics:Hair/furMammary glands which produce milk
3 Characteristics of Mammals EndothermicWell-developed brains
4 Characteristics of Mammals Heart has 4 chambersDiaphragm (muscle) aids in breathing
5 Characteristics Mammals have single lower jaw Most species have 4 different types of teeth: Incisors, canines, cuspids, and bicuspidsVarious types of teeth for different diets
6 Characteristics Mostly viviparous (live birth) Females secrete milk from mammary glands to feed newborn young.
7 Distinguishing Features Two features distinguish them from other invertebrates: hair and production of milk.
8 Class MammaliaSubclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structureSubclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skullInfraclass Ornithodelphia- MonotremesInfraclass Metatheria- MarsupialsInfraclass Eutheria- Placentals
9 Order Monotremata Oviparous or egg laying mammals Only 3 in existence Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaters called echidna.Not completely endothermic (their body temperature is lower and fluctuates more than other mammals)Mammae without nipplesEdentulous as adultsLimbs modified forswimming or diggingAustralia and New Guinea
10 Duck-Billed Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Only member of the mammal family OrnithorhynchidaeGreek platys meaning broad and pous meaning footSeveral reptilian characteristics: same opening for reproduction and eliminating waste products, the ability to lay eggsThe world's only venomous furred animalSpur on hind footFemales loose after one yearBill contains an electro-receptor system
11 Echidna (Spiny Anteater) Tachyglossus aculeatus "Echidna" derives from the Latin word for "viper”Tongue protrudes like a snakeNocturnalTerrestrial and burrowingFemales normally lay only one egg
13 Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupials) Old classification placed all marsupials in a single orderMore recent classifications have recognized the diversity and radiation of MarsupialsMarsupials now separated into seven ordersRange, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Guinea, adjacent islands
14 Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupialia) Order Didelphimorphia Opossums Order Paucituberculata Rat Opossums Order Microbiotheria Monito del monte Order Dasyuromorphia Thylacines, numbats,dasyures Order Peramelemorphia Bandicoots Order Notoryctemorphia Marsupial mole Order Diprotodontia Koalas, wombats,kangaroos, etc
15 250 species of marsupial species exist in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, And the Americas .Tasmanian Devil
16 MarsupialsGive birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples
17 They attach themselves to milk secreting nipples nursing until they are mature enough to survive outside the pouch.
27 Characteristics of Placentals 95% of all mammalsCarry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood
28 Placental Characteristics The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing youngGestation period-is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus
29 Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water. Some mammals can fly!Malaysian Fruit Bat
30 Order Insectivora Consists of 400 species Includes shrews and moles
31 Order InsectivoraSmall animals with high metabolic rate and found in North America, Europe, and Asia.Most have long pointed noses that enable them to grub for insects, worms, and invertebrates.Live on ground, trees, in water, and underground.
32 Order Rodentia Largest mammalian order having over 2,400 species. On every continent except for AntarcticaIncludes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, and porcupines.Chipmunk
34 Only two incisors in each jaw, grow as long as rodent lives, and used for gnawing
35 Order LagomorphaIncludes rabbits, hares, and small mountain mammals called pikas.Found worldwideWarrens- families of rabbitsHarePika
36 Rabbits vs. Hares Rabbits are smaller and slower Shorter ears and hind legs with smaller feetSolid colored furA young rabbit is a bunnyAltricialHares are generally larger and fasterHares have longer ears, longer hind legs, and larger feetHares have black markings on their furA young hare is called a leveretPrecocial
37 Order LagomorphaDouble row of incisors, large front teeth backed with two smaller ones, adaptation for herbivorous diet.
38 Order Edentata/Xenarthra Made up of 30 living species including anteaters, armadillos, and sloths.The name edentate means “without teeth”Those with teeth have single root with teeth and no enamel
40 Anteater feeding at a Termite mound Edentates have adaptations for insectivorous diets, including a long, sticky tongue and clawed front pawsAnteater feeding at a Termite mound
41 Sloths, on the other hand have continuously growing teeth as an adaptation for grinding plants
42 Chiroptera Made up of over 900 species of bats Live throughout the world except in polar environments
43 A bat’s wing is modified front limb which skin membrane between extremely long finger bones Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, or grasping
44 Order ChiropteraMost bats are active at night and have a special way to navigate using echolocation (bouncing off high-frequency sound waves)Frequency of returning sound waves with the size, distance, and rate of movement of different objects
45 Order ChiropteraBats that use echolocation have small eyes and large ears.Feed on insects and have teeth specialized for such diets
46 Some feed on fruit and flower nectar and do not use echolocation. These bats are sometimes called flying foxes, have large eyes and keen sense of smell.
47 Orders Cetacea and Sirenia 90 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises are distributed worldwide.Cetaceans have fishlike bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers.
48 Cetaceans divided into two groups which are toothed whales and baleen whales. Toothed whales include beaked whales, sperm whales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises.Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons
49 Have over 100 teethPrey on fish, squid, seals and whales
50 Baleen whales lack teeth Baleen-thin plates of finger like material for filtering food from waterShrimp and other small invertebrates are the prey of the baleen whales.
51 The Order Sirenia is made up of four species of manatees and dugongs.
52 Front limbs are flippers for swimming Sirenians lack hind legs but have flattened tails.
53 Order Carnivora250 living species in carnivoria are distributed worldwideMost of the species mainly eat meat, which explains the name.About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears, raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters
54 Some members of this order such as bears feed extensively on plant material as well as meat, so they are called omnivores.Carnivores generally have long canine teeth, strong jaws, clawed toes.Highly developed sense of smell and a large braincase
55 Suborder PinnipediaPinnipedia are water dwelling carnivores and have streamlined bodiesSea lions (ear flaps), seals (no ear flaps) and walruses (elongated canines)
56 Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla Ungulates-hoofed mammalsThese two classes are herbivores.Mostly grazers/browsersRuminants- four chambered stomachThe first three chambers are for storage (rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme) to aid in breakdown of cellulose“Chewing the cud”Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes double digestion.
57 Order Artiodactyla Ungulates with an even amount of toes Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle
58 Order Perissodactyla- Ungulates with an odd number of toes - Horses, rhins, zebras, and tapirs
59 Order Proboscidea Characterized by a boneless nose or proboscis Elephants are the largest land dwellers alive today, weighing more than 6 tons.African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asian species
60 It has modified incisors, called tusks, for digging up roots and stripping bark from branches.
61 Order Primates200 living species of primates classified as prosimians.Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, gibbons, and great apes
62 Grasping digits with free-moving limbs Finger and toenails Omnivorous dietsUnspecialized teethGrasping digits with free-moving limbsFinger and toenailsA complex brain has enabled anthropoids to develop behaviors and to live in highly organized social groups.Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups