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1 Mammals. 2 Class Mammalia Includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth. Two identifying characteristics: Hair/fur Mammary glands which.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Mammals. 2 Class Mammalia Includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth. Two identifying characteristics: Hair/fur Mammary glands which."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Mammals

2 2 Class Mammalia Includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth. Two identifying characteristics: Hair/fur Mammary glands which produce milk

3 Characteristics of Mammals Endothermic Well-developed brains 3

4 Characteristics of Mammals Heart has 4 chambers Diaphragm (muscle) aids in breathing 4

5 Characteristics Mammals have single lower jaw Most species have 4 different types of teeth: Incisors, canines, cuspids, and bicuspids Various types of teeth for different diets 5

6 Characteristics Mostly viviparous (live birth) Females secrete milk from mammary glands to feed newborn young. 6

7 Distinguishing Features Two features distinguish them from other invertebrates: hair and production of milk. 7

8 Class Mammalia Subclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structure Subclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skull Infraclass Ornithodelphia- Monotremes Infraclass Metatheria- Marsupials Infraclass Eutheria- Placentals 8

9 Order Monotremata Oviparous or egg laying mammals Only 3 in existence Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaters called echidna. Not completely endothermic (their body temperature is lower and fluctuates more than other mammals) Mammae without nipples Edentulous as adults Limbs modified for swimming or digging Australia and New Guinea 9

10 Duck-Billed Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Only member of the mammal family Ornithorhynchidae Greek platys meaning broad and pous meaning foot Several reptilian characteristics: same opening for reproduction and eliminating waste products, the ability to lay eggs The world's only venomous furred animal – Spur on hind foot – Females loose after one year Bill contains an electro-receptor system 10

11 Echidna (Spiny Anteater) Tachyglossus aculeatus "Echidna" derives from the Latin word for "viper – Tongue protrudes like a snake Nocturnal Terrestrial and burrowing Females normally lay only one egg 11

12 Monotremata 12 Duck-billed platypus Spiny anteater

13 Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupials) Old classification placed all marsupials in a single order More recent classifications have recognized the diversity and radiation of Marsupials Marsupials now separated into seven orders Range, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Guinea, adjacent islands 13

14 Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupialia) 14 Order Didelphimorphia Opossums Order PaucituberculataRat Opossums Order MicrobiotheriaMonito del monte Order DasyuromorphiaThylacines, numbats, dasyures Order PeramelemorphiaBandicoots Order Notoryctemorphia Marsupial mole Order DiprotodontiaKoalas, wombats, dasyures Order PeramelemorphiaBandicoots Order Notoryctemorphia Marsupial mole Order DiprotodontiaKoalas, wombats, kangaroos, etc kangaroos, etc

15 250 species of marsupial species exist in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, And the Americas. 15 Tasmanian Devil

16 Marsupials Give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born. – Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples 16

17 They attach themselves to milk secreting nipples nursing until they are mature enough to survive outside the pouch. 17

18 Syndactyly 18

19 American Marsupial 19 Order Didelphimorphia- Opossum

20 Order Paucituberculata Rat Opossums 20

21 Order Microbiotheria- Monito del Monte 21

22 Order Dasyuromorphia Thylacine Numbat 22 Dasyure

23 Order Peramelemorphia- Bandicoots 23

24 Order Notoryctemorphia- Marsupial Moles 24

25 Order Diprotodontia WombatsKangaroos 25

26 Placental Mammals 26

27 Characteristics of Placentals 95% of all mammals Carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild. Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mothers blood to babys blood 27

28 Placental Characteristics The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing young Gestation period-is the time which mammals develop in mothers uterus 28

29 Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water. Some mammals can fly! 29 Malaysian Fruit Bat

30 Order Insectivora Consists of 400 species Includes shrews and moles 30 Mole Shrew

31 Order Insectivora Small animals with high metabolic rate and found in North America, Europe, and Asia. Most have long pointed noses that enable them to grub for insects, worms, and invertebrates. Live on ground, trees, in water, and underground. 31

32 Order Rodentia Largest mammalian order having over 2,400 species. On every continent except for Antarctica Includes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, and porcupines. 32 Chipmunk

33 33 Porcupine Marmot Squirrel

34 Only two incisors in each jaw, grow as long as rodent lives, and used for gnawing 34

35 Order Lagomorpha Includes rabbits, hares, and small mountain mammals called pikas. Found worldwide Warrens- families of rabbits 35 Pika Hare

36 Rabbits vs. Hares Rabbits are smaller and slower Shorter ears and hind legs with smaller feet Solid colored fur A young rabbit is a bunny Altricial Hares are generally larger and faster Hares have longer ears, longer hind legs, and larger feet Hares have black markings on their fur A young hare is called a leveret Precocial 36

37 Order Lagomorpha Double row of incisors, large front teeth backed with two smaller ones, adaptation for herbivorous diet. 37

38 Order Edentata/Xenarthra Made up of 30 living species including anteaters, armadillos, and sloths. The name edentate means without teeth Those with teeth have single root with teeth and no enamel 38

39 Anteater 39 Sloths

40 Edentates have adaptations for insectivorous diets, including a long, sticky tongue and clawed front paws 40 Anteater feeding at a Termite mound

41 Sloths, on the other hand have continuously growing teeth as an adaptation for grinding plants 41

42 Chiroptera Made up of over 900 species of bats Live throughout the world except in polar environments 42

43 A bats wing is modified front limb which skin membrane between extremely long finger bones Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, or grasping 43

44 Order Chiroptera Most bats are active at night and have a special way to navigate using echolocation (bouncing off high-frequency sound waves) Frequency of returning sound waves with the size, distance, and rate of movement of different objects 44

45 Order Chiroptera Bats that use echolocation have small eyes and large ears. Feed on insects and have teeth specialized for such diets 45

46 Some feed on fruit and flower nectar and do not use echolocation. These bats are sometimes called flying foxes, have large eyes and keen sense of smell. 46

47 Orders Cetacea and Sirenia 90 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises are distributed worldwide. Cetaceans have fishlike bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers. 47

48 Cetaceans divided into two groups which are toothed whales and baleen whales. Toothed whales include beaked whales, sperm whales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises. Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons 48

49 Have over 100 teeth Prey on fish, squid, seals and whales 49

50 Baleen whales lack teeth Baleen-thin plates of finger like material for filtering food from water Shrimp and other small invertebrates are the prey of the baleen whales. 50

51 The Order Sirenia is made up of four species of manatees and dugongs. 51

52 Front limbs are flippers for swimming Sirenians lack hind legs but have flattened tails. 52

53 Order Carnivora 250 living species in carnivoria are distributed worldwide Most of the species mainly eat meat, which explains the name. About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears, raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters 53

54 Some members of this order such as bears feed extensively on plant material as well as meat, so they are called omnivores. Carnivores generally have long canine teeth, strong jaws, clawed toes. Highly developed sense of smell and a large braincase 54

55 Suborder Pinnipedia Pinnipedia are water dwelling carnivores and have streamlined bodies Sea lions (ear flaps), seals (no ear flaps) and walruses (elongated canines) 55

56 Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla Ungulates-hoofed mammals These two classes are herbivores. – Mostly grazers/browsers Ruminants- four chambered stomach The first three chambers are for storage (rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme) to aid in breakdown of cellulose – Chewing the cud Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes double digestion. 56

57 Order Artiodactyla -Ungulates with an even amount of toes -Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle 57

58 Order Perissodactyla - Ungulates with an odd number of toes - Horses, rhins, zebras, and tapirs 58

59 Order Proboscidea Characterized by a boneless nose or proboscis Elephants are the largest land dwellers alive today, weighing more than 6 tons. – African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asian species 59

60 It has modified incisors, called tusks, for digging up roots and stripping bark from branches. 60

61 Order Primates 200 living species of primates classified as prosimians. Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, gibbons, and great apes 61

62 Omnivorous diets Unspecialized teeth Grasping digits with free-moving limbs Finger and toenails A complex brain has enabled anthropoids to develop behaviors and to live in highly organized social groups. – Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups 62

63 Order Primates 63

64 Order Primates Most Intelligent Animals 64

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