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Presentation on theme: "Mammals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mammals

2 Class Mammalia Includes 4000 species
Most dominant land animals on earth. Two identifying characteristics: Hair/fur Mammary glands which produce milk

3 Characteristics of Mammals
Endothermic Well-developed brains

4 Characteristics of Mammals
Heart has 4 chambers Diaphragm (muscle) aids in breathing

5 Characteristics Mammals have single lower jaw
Most species have 4 different types of teeth: Incisors, canines, cuspids, and bicuspids Various types of teeth for different diets

6 Characteristics Mostly viviparous (live birth)
Females secrete milk from mammary glands to feed newborn young.

7 Distinguishing Features
Two features distinguish them from other invertebrates: hair and production of milk.

8 Class Mammalia Subclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structure Subclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skull Infraclass Ornithodelphia- Monotremes Infraclass Metatheria- Marsupials Infraclass Eutheria- Placentals

9 Order Monotremata Oviparous or egg laying mammals Only 3 in existence
Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaters called echidna. Not completely endothermic (their body temperature is lower and fluctuates more than other mammals) Mammae without nipples Edentulous as adults Limbs modified for swimming or digging Australia and New Guinea

10 Duck-Billed Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Only member of the mammal family Ornithorhynchidae Greek platys meaning broad and pous meaning foot Several reptilian characteristics: same opening for reproduction and eliminating waste products, the ability to lay eggs The world's only venomous furred animal Spur on hind foot Females loose after one year Bill contains an electro-receptor system

11 Echidna (Spiny Anteater) Tachyglossus aculeatus
"Echidna" derives from the Latin word for "viper” Tongue protrudes like a snake Nocturnal Terrestrial and burrowing Females normally lay only one egg

12 Monotremata Duck-billed platypus Spiny anteater

13 Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupials)
Old classification placed all marsupials in a single order More recent classifications have recognized the diversity and radiation of Marsupials Marsupials now separated into seven orders Range, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Guinea, adjacent islands

14 Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupialia)
Order Didelphimorphia Opossums Order Paucituberculata Rat Opossums Order Microbiotheria Monito del monte Order Dasyuromorphia Thylacines, numbats, dasyures Order Peramelemorphia Bandicoots Order Notoryctemorphia Marsupial mole Order Diprotodontia Koalas, wombats, kangaroos, etc

15 250 species of marsupial species exist in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, And the Americas
. Tasmanian Devil

16 Marsupials Give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born. Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples

17 They attach themselves to milk secreting nipples nursing until they are mature enough to survive outside the pouch.

18 Syndactyly

19 Order Didelphimorphia- Opossum
American Marsupial Order Didelphimorphia- Opossum

20 Order Paucituberculata
Rat Opossums

21 Order Microbiotheria- Monito del Monte

22 Order Dasyuromorphia Thylacine Numbat Dasyure

23 Order Peramelemorphia- Bandicoots

24 Order Notoryctemorphia- Marsupial Moles

25 Order Diprotodontia Wombats Kangaroos

26 Placental Mammals

27 Characteristics of Placentals
95% of all mammals Carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild. Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood

28 Placental Characteristics
The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing young Gestation period-is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus

29 Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water
Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water. Some mammals can fly! Malaysian Fruit Bat

30 Order Insectivora Consists of 400 species Includes shrews and moles

31 Order Insectivora Small animals with high metabolic rate and found in North America, Europe, and Asia. Most have long pointed noses that enable them to grub for insects, worms, and invertebrates. Live on ground, trees, in water, and underground.

32 Order Rodentia Largest mammalian order having over 2,400 species.
On every continent except for Antarctica Includes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, and porcupines. Chipmunk

33 Marmot Porcupine Squirrel

34 Only two incisors in each jaw, grow as long as rodent lives, and used for gnawing

35 Order Lagomorpha Includes rabbits, hares, and small mountain mammals called pikas. Found worldwide Warrens- families of rabbits Hare Pika

36 Rabbits vs. Hares Rabbits are smaller and slower
Shorter ears and hind legs with smaller feet Solid colored fur A young rabbit is a bunny Altricial Hares are generally larger and faster Hares have longer ears, longer hind legs, and larger feet Hares have black markings on their fur A young hare is called a leveret Precocial

37 Order Lagomorpha Double row of incisors, large front teeth backed with two smaller ones, adaptation for herbivorous diet.

38 Order Edentata/Xenarthra
Made up of 30 living species including anteaters, armadillos, and sloths. The name edentate means “without teeth” Those with teeth have single root with teeth and no enamel

39 Anteater Sloths

40 Anteater feeding at a Termite mound
Edentates have adaptations for insectivorous diets, including a long, sticky tongue and clawed front paws Anteater feeding at a Termite mound

41 Sloths, on the other hand have continuously growing teeth as an adaptation for grinding plants

42 Chiroptera Made up of over 900 species of bats
Live throughout the world except in polar environments

43 A bat’s wing is modified front limb which skin membrane between extremely long finger bones
Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, or grasping

44 Order Chiroptera Most bats are active at night and have a special way to navigate using echolocation (bouncing off high-frequency sound waves) Frequency of returning sound waves with the size, distance, and rate of movement of different objects

45 Order Chiroptera Bats that use echolocation have small eyes and large ears. Feed on insects and have teeth specialized for such diets

46 Some feed on fruit and flower nectar and do not use echolocation.
These bats are sometimes called flying foxes, have large eyes and keen sense of smell.

47 Orders Cetacea and Sirenia
90 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises are distributed worldwide. Cetaceans have fishlike bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers.

48 Cetaceans divided into two groups which are toothed whales and baleen whales.
Toothed whales include beaked whales, sperm whales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises. Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons

49 Have over 100 teeth Prey on fish, squid, seals and whales

50 Baleen whales lack teeth
Baleen-thin plates of finger like material for filtering food from water Shrimp and other small invertebrates are the prey of the baleen whales.

51 The Order Sirenia is made up of four species of manatees and dugongs.

52 Front limbs are flippers for swimming
Sirenians lack hind legs but have flattened tails.

53 Order Carnivora 250 living species in carnivoria are distributed worldwide Most of the species mainly eat meat, which explains the name. About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears, raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters

54 Some members of this order such as bears feed extensively on plant material as well as meat, so they are called omnivores. Carnivores generally have long canine teeth, strong jaws, clawed toes. Highly developed sense of smell and a large braincase

55 Suborder Pinnipedia Pinnipedia are water dwelling carnivores and have streamlined bodies Sea lions (ear flaps), seals (no ear flaps) and walruses (elongated canines)

56 Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla
Ungulates-hoofed mammals These two classes are herbivores. Mostly grazers/browsers Ruminants- four chambered stomach The first three chambers are for storage (rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme) to aid in breakdown of cellulose “Chewing the cud” Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes double digestion.

57 Order Artiodactyla Ungulates with an even amount of toes
Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle

58 Order Perissodactyla - Ungulates with an odd number of toes - Horses, rhins, zebras, and tapirs

59 Order Proboscidea Characterized by a boneless nose or proboscis
Elephants are the largest land dwellers alive today, weighing more than 6 tons. African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asian species

60 It has modified incisors, called tusks, for digging up roots and stripping bark from branches.

61 Order Primates 200 living species of primates classified as prosimians. Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, gibbons, and great apes

62 Grasping digits with free-moving limbs Finger and toenails
Omnivorous diets Unspecialized teeth Grasping digits with free-moving limbs Finger and toenails A complex brain has enabled anthropoids to develop behaviors and to live in highly organized social groups. Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups

63 Order Primates

64 Order Primates Most Intelligent Animals

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