Science AHSGE: Standard VI-1, part 4- Biomes of the World.
Presentation on theme: "Biology AHSGE: Standard XV Biomes of the World. Biomes and Native Organisms CONTENT STANDARD 15. Identify biomes based on environmental factors and native."— Presentation transcript:
Biology AHSGE: Standard XV Biomes of the World
Biomes and Native Organisms CONTENT STANDARD 15. Identify biomes based on environmental factors and native organisms. ELIGIBLE CONTENT A. Identify terrestrial biomes including the tundra, desert, rainforest, grassland, taiga (coniferous forest), and the temperate deciduous forest. B. Identify the aquatic biomes including freshwater and marine. C. Identify terrestrial and aquatic biomes based on the rainfall and temperature characteristics.
What is a biome? Largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions.
How are biomes formed? Distributed across the Earth based primarily on climate. Similar climate = similar biomes Latitude affects climate The farther north or south of the equator, the colder the temperature Elevation affects climate The higher, the colder. Elevation and latitude often similar
How many terrestrial biomes are there?
Terrestrial Biomes Tropical Rainforest Tropical Savanna Desert Chaparral Grassland Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Boreal Forest Tundra Some disagreement among scientists,most agree on these:
Native Species Indigenous- Naturally from an area –Characteristic of an ecosystem –Keystone species- Organism that is vital to an ecosystem Without it, ecosystem would fail Examples: –Beavers- create ponds, streams or swamps –Otters- control sea urchin populations in kelp beds –Grizzly bears- provide nourishment to forest floor with salmon carcasses –Elephants- transform landscape to make more accessible –Prairie dogs and gopher tortoises- Dig burrows and tunnels other animals use
Tropical Rainforest Near the equator More than 200 cm of rain annually Temperatures typically fall between 20 o C and 25 o C (68-77° F) for the entire year 50% of all the worlds animal species may be found here Multiple canopy layers Large amounts of transpiration Highest biodiversity: birds, bats, small mammals, insects, monkeys, and jaguars; orchids, bromeliads, vines, ferns, mosses and palms
Tropical Savanna Grasslands/few scattered trees Wet and dry season Hot temperatures Annual rainfall is between 50 and 127 cm More species of grazing mammals than any other biome Animals migrate Lions, zebras, giraffes, hyenas, etc.
Desert Between 25 o and 40 o latitude Less than 25 cm of rain annually Temperatures range between 20 o C and 25 o C (68-77°F) but some extreme deserts can reach temperatures higher than 38 o C (100°F) and lower than –15 o C (5°F) Animals burrow and remove water from food: Kangaroo rats (rodents), rabbits, skunks, and burrowing owls, reptiles, and birds; all mostly active at night Succulents and plants with very reduced leaf surfaces
Chaparral Between 32 o and 40 o latitude on the west coast of continents Between 35 and 70 cm of rain, usually in the winter Extremely resistant to drought and weather events
Temperate Grassland Dry climate/trees are found only near water sources such as streams Between 50 and 90 cm of rainfall each year Summer temperatures can reach up to 38 o C (100°F), and winter temperatures can fall to –40 o C (- 40°F) Prairie dogs; ground owls Broad-leaf trees and many wildflowers Nutrient-rich soil with thick topsoil layer
Temperate Deciduous Forest Moderate climate Most trees will lose their leaves in the winter Temperatures range between – 30 o C and 30 o C (-22° F to 104° F) 75 to 150 cm of precipitation Well developed understory High biodiversity: deer, squirrels, mice, raccoons, salamanders, snakes, frogs, and insects
Temperate Boreal Forest Also known as Taiga (coniferous forest) Between 45 o and 60 o North latitude Cold climate with summer rains Patchy permafrost- permanently frozen soil starting as high as a few centimeters below the surface – which severely limits plant growth Many lakes, ponds, rivers and bogs Very few reptiles Limited understory Snow is primary form of precipitation (40 – 100 cm annually) Mosses and evergreen trees; drought resistant Summer birds and insects, bears, moose, etc.
Temperate Boreal Forest
Tundra Means treeless or marshy plain –Prairie potholes Characterized by permafrost Winter temperatures average –34 o C (93°F) while summer temperatures usually average below 10 o C (50°F) Lowest precipitation (15–25 cm per year) but ground is usually wet/snow because of low evaporation Coastal species: polar bears, seals, penguins Inland: Caribou, ducks and geese Low-growing plants with shallow roots; reproduce by budding
Antarctic Desert Low precipitation No permafrost Low species diversity Moss and algae vegetation Lichens Some invertebrates
Aquatic Biomes- Water Most stable average daily temperature Freshwater- Low to no salinity –Glacial lakes –Rivers –Lakes/ponds Estuary- brackish –Varying salinity levels Marine- ocean –High salinity level