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Chapter 21-Birds. Class Aves- Birds ~8,700 species Forelimbs modified into wings Amniotic eggs (hard-shelled) Scaled feet and legs Strong, light-weight.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21-Birds. Class Aves- Birds ~8,700 species Forelimbs modified into wings Amniotic eggs (hard-shelled) Scaled feet and legs Strong, light-weight."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21-Birds

2 Class Aves- Birds ~8,700 species Forelimbs modified into wings Amniotic eggs (hard-shelled) Scaled feet and legs Strong, light-weight skeleton Endothermic metabolism (104° F to 108° F)Endothermic metabolism (104° F to 108° F) Completely divided ventricle –Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood completely separate Highly efficient lungs Syrinx- Birds song box

3 Bird Heart

4 Highly Efficient Lungs One-way air flow Air sacs store gas (more efficient) Lungs exposed to only oxygenated air Blood travels in opposite direction Endothermic metabolism, completely divided ventricle, and efficient lungs account for energy needed for flight

5 Highly Efficient Lungs

6 Bird Skeleton Thin Hollow Many bones fused for sturdy muscle attachment Keel- Enlarged breastbone and fused collar bone –Breast muscles attachment (30% of weight)

7 Class Aves- Birds Brain to body size ratio second only to mammals Digestion: –Beak lacks teeth –Crop- Expanded portion of esophagus stores food –2-chamber stomach: Proventriculus - 1 st – Digestive acids partially break down food Gizzard- 2 nd – Muscular; grinds and crushes –Waste exits cloaca –Covert nitrogenous wastes to uric acid in a harmless white paste form

8 Feathers Covered in feathers (modified reptilian scales) follicles –Develop from follicles (tiny pits in skin) –Molt feathers individually –Also function as camouflage or attracting mates Sexual dimorphism- Males and females have different appearances –Males more brightly colored to attract females Camouflage

9 Feathers Attract Mates Male and female cardinals

10 Feathers Follicles- Small sacs in skin where feathers develop Two types: –Contour feathers –Contour feathers- Cover body and give shape Flight feathers - wings and tail Protect and streamline Rachis- Broad, flat part of feather –Vane- central shaft of feather –Branches ( barbs ) w/ barbules (projections with hooks) interlock –Quill- bottom section of rachis (calamus) PreeningPreening- Pulling feathers to relink connections –Preen gland –Preen gland- Secretes oil to clean and waterproof feathers »At base of tail Down feathersDown feathers- Insulate under contour feathers

11 Bird Feathers

12 Amazing Bird Flights Hummingbirds flap their wings rapidly (20-80 beats per second) –Smallest birds Migrating birds can travel up to 2,000 miles in 6 days Gulls and vultures use upward air movement to use little energy Hummingbird Turkey Vulture

13 Bird Reproduction and Offspring Monogamous- many bird species have mating pairs and mate for life Clutch- a group of eggs in a nest –Incubate- Male or female parents keep eggs warm –Albumin- Egg white (protein) –Altricial- birds helpless at birth Few eggs at a time Stay in nest a long time Ex: songbirds (i.e. American Robin) –Precocial- birds well developed at birth Large numbers of eggs Feed themselves Ex: Ducks and chickens

14 Bird Diversity 28 orders (see page 329) –60% order Passiformes (song birds) –5,300 species; largest group of terrestrial vertebrates Robin Mocking bird

15 Bird Adaptations Adaptations based on habits and diet –Beak (bill) –Legs –Feet Some adaptations include –Stream-lined bodies for flying over water nocturnal –Low-light vision for feeding at night (nocturnal) –Wings adapted for swimming Sea gull Barn owl

16 Flightless Birds Ostriches (Africa) & Emus (Domesticated) –Largest birds –Body to heavy for flight Penguins (Antarctica) –Adapted wings for swimming Emperor penguin family

17 Avian Adaptations

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20 North American Flyways

21 Long Migration Flight

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