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Kingdom Animalia Invertebrates- Phylum Porifera. Sponge Structure Bodies completely lack symmetry (asymmetrical) Masses of specialized cells embedded.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Animalia Invertebrates- Phylum Porifera. Sponge Structure Bodies completely lack symmetry (asymmetrical) Masses of specialized cells embedded."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Animalia Invertebrates- Phylum Porifera

2 Sponge Structure Bodies completely lack symmetry (asymmetrical) Masses of specialized cells embedded in gel-like substance of body wall called mesohyl Totipotent - The plasticity of sponge cells and how specialized types can change into others Not organized into tissues nor organs ( Parazoa) Body wall covered in tiny pores, ostia, water enters Larger openings, oscula, water exits Sessile- Do not move –Attach to surface early in life –Can produce toxins as defense

3 Sponges Pinacoderm - Outer layer of cells of a sponge – Pinacocytes - Thin, flat cells on the outer- surface –Can be tube-like and contractile ( porocytes ) Bag-shaped with large internal cavity ( Spongocoel ) –Lined by choanocytes, or collar cells ( Choanoderm collectively) –Flagellated cells draw in water through pores Amoeboids (Mesenchyme cells) - Irregularly shaped sponge cells –Float in mesohyl to supply nutrients and carry away waste for other cells

4 Structure of a Sponge

5 Protistan Ancestors Choanocytes closely resemble a protist called a choanoflagellate

6 Feeding Habits of a Sponge Collar cells function as sieves –Trap plankton and other tiny organisms in the small hair-like projections –Pulls organisms in and digests them intracellularly (within the cell) –Release nutrients and waste into mesohyl Amoebocytes pick up nutrients from mesohyl and supplies to rest of cells

7 Sponge Skeleton Skeletal support is to prevent sponge from collapsing in on itself Not a fixed skeleton, parts found throughout mesohyl Most sponges composed of spicules –Tiny needles composed of silica or calcium carbonate –Used for protestion as well – Sclerocyte - Cells that produce spicules Microscleres- Smaller spicules Macroscleres- Larger spicules Few composed of spongin (ex: bath sponges) –Resilient, flexible protein fibers Some contain both

8 Three Types of Sponges Based on skeleton type –Class Calcarea- Calcareous sponges Spicules composed of calcium carbonate –Class Hexactinellida- Glass sponges- Found in the deepest parts of the ocean Spicules made of silica – Hexaxon - Unique six-pointed spicule –- Class Demospongiae- Demosponges Spicules made of silica Also contain spongin (proteinaceous)

9 Three Body Forms Ascon- Vase-like Porocytes (ostia) lead directly to spongocoel Sycon- sponge wall is folded. –incurrent canals -water enters from dermal pores –radial canals (lined with choanocytes)- lead to spongocoel Leucon- Branched canal system lacking spongocoel –Incurrent canals lead to choanocyte- lined chambers (water slows through these) –Multiple oscula from excurrent canals

10 Reproduction Asexual reproduction: – Regeneration - Cut pieces will grow back – Budding - Shed fragments constantly to make new individuals – Gemmules- Amoebocytes encased in protective coat Develop when living conditions become to harsh to survive Sealed in with food to survive Cells grow into new sponge when conditions

11 Reproduction Sexual reproduction –Most sponges are hermaphrodites (produce both eggs and sperm –Do not self fertilize –Sperm cells of one sponge enter another through pores –Collar cells pass sperm into mesohyl where eggs are located and fertilization occurs –Zygotes develop into larvae and leave the sponge Inversion - movement of flagellar cells of developing larvae to the outside Blastula- Hollow larval stage (coeloblastula) Parenchymula - Solid larval stage Macromeres- Large cells that form the outer choanoderm –After a brief free-swimming stage they attach to a surface to live as sessile sponges

12 Sexual Reproduction of Sponges


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