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Serology Chapter 12. Serology It is the study of body fluids Blood Saliva Semen Urine.

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Presentation on theme: "Serology Chapter 12. Serology It is the study of body fluids Blood Saliva Semen Urine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Serology Chapter 12

2 Serology It is the study of body fluids Blood Saliva Semen Urine

3 Functions of Blood Blood has 3 main functions Transportation Oxygen, carbon dioxide, wastes, nutrients, heat, & hormones Regulation Ph, body temperature, water content Protection From disease & loss of blood

4 Characteristics of Blood Thicker than H 2 O and flows more slowly F temp Ph of 7.4 8% of body weight Blood volume Male- 5-6 liters Female- 4-5 liters

5 Components of Blood Blood consists of 55% plasma 45% cells 99% RBC (red blood cells) <1% WBC (white blood cells) and platelets


7 Plasma 90% H 2 O 7% plasma proteins Albumin- maintain blood osmotic pressure Globulin- form antigen- antibody complexes Fibrinogen- for clotting 3% other substances Electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products

8 Formed Elements of Blood Red blood cells (erythrocytes) White blood cells (leukocytes) Platelets (thrombocytes) Serum

9 Formation of Blood Cells Blood cells need to be replaced continuously Die within hours, days, or weeks Process is called hematopoiesis In embryo, occurs in yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, & red bone marrow In adult- occurs in red bone marrow of sternum, ribs, skull, & pelvis

10 Red Blood Cells (RBC) Contains hemoglobin (carries oxygen) Gives it its red color Makes up 1/3 of cell s weight Is biconcave Increased sa:vol Flexible for narrow passages No nucleus or organelles (no cell division) In adult Male- 5.4 million RBC/gttp (drop) Female- 4.8 million RBC/gttp

11 White Blood Cells (WBC) Are leukocytes Have a nucleus and no hemoglobin Classified as granular or agranular based on presence of granules in the cytoplasm Granulocytes- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Agranulocytes- monocytes, lymphocytes

12 Platelets Disc shaped No nucleus present Normal count gttp/blood Other blood cell counts 5 million RBC WBC

13 Serum Is the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed

14 Immunoassay Techniques Are available for detecting drugs through antigen-antibody reactions 2 types of processes EMIT (enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique) Antibodies that bind to a specific drug are added to a subject s urine RIA (radioimmunoassay) Uses drugs labeled with radioactive tags

15 Antigen-Antibody Reactions When an animal is injected with an antigen, its body will produce a series of different antibodies, all of which are designed to attack some particular site on the antigen of interest Called polyclonal antibodies Antibodies designed to combine with a single antigen site can be manufactured Called monoclonal antibodies

16 Forensics of Blood The criminalist must be prepared to answer the following questions when examining dried blood Is it blood? From what species did the blood originate? If the blood is of human origin, how closely can it be associated to a particular individual Detection of blood is best made by means of a preliminary color test

17 Presumptive Tests for Blood Determination 3 tests Kastle-Meyer color test Is a mixture of phenolphthalein and hydrogen peroxide Hemoglobin of blood will cause a deep pink color if blood is present Hematest tablet Reacts with the heme group in blood causing a blue-green color Luminol test Reacts with blood to produce light

18 Human vs. Animal Blood Once the stain has been characterized as blood, the precipitin test will determine whether the stain is of human or animal origin Uses antisera normally derived from rabbits that have injected with the blood of a known animal to determine the species origin of a questioned bloodstain Once the bloodstain has been determined to be of human origin, the blood is typed

19 The Discovery of Blood Types Before Landsteiner s discovery, countless people died from blood transfusions There was an assumption back then that everybody had the same blood In 1900, Landsteiner proved that there are four different types of blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of RBC s Known as ABO blood group In 1940, he discovered the Rh factor

20 Blood Types RBC surfaces are marked by genetically determined glycoproteins & glycolipids Agglutinogens or antigens Distinguishes at least 24 different blood types Most common= ABO & RH

21 ABO Blood Groups Based on 2 glycolipid antigens (A & B) found on the surfaces of RBC Antigen A only= type A blood Antigen B only= type B blood Both antigens= type AB blood No antigens= type O blood Plasma contains antibodies or agglutinins to the A or B antigens not found in your blood Anti- A antibody reacts with antigen A Anti-B antibody reacts with antigen B


23 Breakdown of ABO Blood Types Type A- 42% Type B- 12% Type AB- 3% Type O- 43%

24 Rh Factor Antigen was discovered in rhesus monkey Called Rh antigen or D antigen People with Rh agglutogens on RBC surface are Rh+ (normal plasma contains no anti-Rh antibodies) Antibodies develop only in Rh- blood type & only with exposure to the antigen

25 Breakdown of Rh Blood Type Rh+- 85% Rh- - 15% Of the Rh+ population, 85% are Caucasians, 94% are African Americans, and 99% are Asians

26 Universal Donors and Recipients People with type AB blood are called universal recipients No antibodies present Can receive blood from anybody People with type O blood are called universal donors No antigens present Can donate blood to anybody

27 Typing and Cross Matching of Blood Mixing of incompatible blood causes agglutination (visible clumping) Formation of antigen- antibody complex that sticks cells together Not the same as blood clotting Typing involves testing blood with known antisera that contains antibodies A, B, or Rh+ Cross matching is to test by mixing donor cells with recipient s serum Screening is to test recipient s serum against known RBC s having known antigens

28 ABO vs. DNA Prior to the advent of DNA typing, bloodstains were linked to a source by ABO bloodtyping DNA analysis has allowed forensic scientists to associated blood and semen stains to a single individual

29 Blood Spatter Evidence It is a field of forensic investigation which deals with the physical properties of blood and the patterns produced under different conditions as a result of various forces being applied to the blood Follows the laws of physics

30 Blood Pattern Reconstruction What to look for at the crime scene Stain condition Pattern Distribution Location Directionality What you get from blood evidence Genetic marker typing Age determination Source determination Race determination Sex determination

31 Blood Spatter CSI s must remember the location, distribution, and appearance of bloodstains and spatters Useful in interpreting and reconstructing the events that produced the bleeding Surface texture and the stain s shape, size, and locating must be considered when determining the direction, dropping distance, and the angle of impact of a bloodstain

32 Blood Droplet Characteristics A blood droplet will remain spherical in space until it collides with a surface Once a blood droplet impacts a surface, a bloodstain is formed A droplet falling from the same height, hitting the same surface at the same angle, will produce a stain with the same basic shape

33 Blood Droplet Volume A droplet contains approximately 0.05 mL of fluid It is not the same for all blood droplets, but is generally between 0.03 mL to 0.15 mL Is directly dependent upon the surface or orifice from which it originates The impact area is called the target

34 Conditions Affecting Shape of Blood Droplet Size of the droplet Angle of impact Velocity at which the blood droplet left its origin Height Texture on target surface On clean glass or plastic Droplet will have smooth outside edges On a rough surface Will produce scalloping on the edges

35 Questions Answered by Blood Spatter Interpretation The distance between the target surface and the origin of blood The point(s) of origin of the blood Movement and direction of a person or an object The number of blows, shots, etc causing the bloodshed and/or the dispersal of blood Type and direction of impact that produced the bloodshed The position of the victim and/or object during bloodshed Movement of the victim and/or object after bloodshed

36 Bloodstain Terminology Parent drop The droplet from which a satellite spatter originates. Satellite spatters Small drops of blood that break off from the parent spatter when the blood droplet hits a surface Spines Pointed edges that radiate out from the spatter

37 Bloodstain Terminology Angle of impact Angle at which blood strikes a target surface Bloodstain transfer When a bloody object comes in contact with a surface and leaves a patterned blood image on the surface Backspatter Blood that is directed back toward the source of energy

38 Bloodstain Terminology Cast off Blood that is thrown from an object in motion Directionality Relates to the direction a drop of blood traveled in space from its point of origin

39 Bloodstain Terminology Contact stain Bloodstains caused by contact between a wet blood-bearing surface and a second surface which may or may not have blood on it 3 types Transfer An image is recognizable and may be identifiable with a particular object Swipe Wet blood is transferred to a surface which did not have blood on it Wipe A non-blood bearing object moves through a wet bloodstain, altering the appearance of the original stain

40 Bloodstain Terminology Terminal velocity It is the greatest speed to which a free falling drop of blood can accelerate in air Is dependent on the acceleration of gravity and the friction of the air against the blood ft/sec 3 types High velocity- greater than 25 ft/sec, usually 100 ft/sec; gives a fine mist appearance Medium velocity ft/sec Low velocity- 5 ft/sec or less


42 Bloodstain Patterns Round If it falls straight down at a 90 degree angle Elliptical Blood droplet elongates as the angle decreases from 90 to 0 degrees Angle can be determined by the following formula Impact angle= sin -1 (arcsin) x (width/length)

43 Impact The more acute the angle of impact, the more elongated the stain 90 degree angles are perfectly round drops with 80 degree angles taking on a more elliptical shape At about 30 degrees, the stain will begin to produce a tail The more acute the angle, the easier it is to determine the direction of travel


45 Bloodstain Patterns The harder and less porous the surface, the less the blood drop will break apart The softer and more porous the surface, the more a blood drop will break apart The pointed end of the blood stain faces the direction of travel

46 Area of Intersection and Convergence The location of the blood source can be determined by drawing lines from various blood droplets to the point where they intersect The area of convergence is the point of origin The spot where the blow occurred


48 Blood Evidence Class evidence for blood would include blood type If you can determine the DNA, you would have individual characteristics Blood stain patterns are considered circumstantial evidence in a court room Experts could argue many points including direction of travel, height of the perpetrator, position of the victim, left/right hand, whether the body was moved, etc

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