Is collaborative One listens to find common ground Enlarges points of view Reveals assumptions for re- evaluation Creates an open- minded attitude Is oppositional One listens to counter arguments. Affirms participant's points of view. Defends assumptions as truth Creates a close- minded attitude Debate Dialogue
Expects other’s reflections will improve their own thinking Temporarily suspending one's beliefs Searches for strengths Respects others and seeks not to alienate Assumes that cooperation can lead to greater understanding Remains open-ended Defends thinking to show that it is right. Calls for investing in one's beliefs. One searches for weaknesses Rebuts contrary positions and may belittle others Debate assumes a single right answer Demands a conclusion Debate Dialogue
What was Socrates' Theory of Knowledge? Socrates was convinced that the way to attain reliable knowledge was through disciplined conversation He called this method dialectic.
What does dialectic mean? di-a-lec-tic (noun) --- the art or practice of examining opinions or ideas logically, often by the method of Question and Answer so as to determine their validity. so as to determine their validity.
What is discussed? A Socratic Seminar is a method used to understand information regarding a specific text Participants seek deeper understanding of complex ideas in text through thoughtful dialogue, rather than by memorizing bits of information.
The Text: You must use the text to help support your claims and to raise: questions questions There are no right or wrong answers. At the end of successful Socratic Seminars, participants often leave with more questions than they brought with them.
The Question: A Socratic Seminar opens with a Question posed by the leader or from a participant. Responses to the opening question generate new ideas and, leading to new responses.
The Leader: In a Socratic Seminar, the leader plays a dual role as Leader and Participant & keeps the discussion focused on the text by & keeps the discussion focused on the text by asking follow-up questions asking follow-up questions helping clarify positions when arguments become confused helping clarify positions when arguments become confused involving reluctant participants involving reluctant participants
The Leader: As a seminar participant, the leader actively engages in the group's exploration of the text text To do this effectively, the leader must know the text well enough to anticipate varied interpretations and recognize important possibilities
The Participants In a Socratic Seminar, participants are responsibile for the of the seminar. In a Socratic Seminar, participants are responsibile for the quality of the seminar. There are three ways to do this: Studying StudyingParticipatingSharing
Starting Dialogue Students must risk making mistakes in order to learn how to learn to think critically, and work collaboratively.
9 Guidelines for Participants in a Socratic Seminar 1. Refer to the text during the discussion. 2. Do not stay confused; ask for clarification. 3. Stick to the point. 4. Don't raise hands ; take turns speaking. 5. Listen carefully and Speak up so that all can hear you. 6. Talk to each other, not just to the leader. 7. Discuss ideas rather than each other's opinions. 8. NO DEBATES! DISCUSSION ONLY
Sample questions that demonstrate constructive participation in Socratic Seminars. Here is my view and how I arrived at it. How does it sound to you? Here is my view and how I arrived at it. How does it sound to you? Do you see gaps in my reasoning? Do you see gaps in my reasoning? Do you have different data? Do you have different data? Do you have different conclusions? Do you have different conclusions? How did you arrive at your view? How did you arrive at your view? Are you taking into account something different from what I have considered? Are you taking into account something different from what I have considered?
Expectations of Participants Did I….. Come prepared? Come prepared? Speak loudly and clearly? Speak loudly and clearly? Cite reasons and evidence for my statements? Cite reasons and evidence for my statements? Use the text to find support? Use the text to find support? Listen to others respectfully? Listen to others respectfully? Stick with the subject? Stick with the subject? Talk to others, not just to the leader? Talk to others, not just to the leader? Paraphrase accurately? Paraphrase accurately? Avoid inappropriate language? Avoid inappropriate language? Ask questions to clear up confusion? Ask questions to clear up confusion? Support others? Support others? Avoid hostile exchanges? Avoid hostile exchanges? Question others in a civil manner? Question others in a civil manner?