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Fundamental Physics Research will Power the New Internet

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamental Physics Research will Power the New Internet"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamental Physics Research will Power the New Internet
Invited Talk to the UCSD Physics Department Brown Bag La Jolla, CA January 8, 2001 Larry Smarr, Cal-(IT)2

2 Proposed UC San Diego and UC Irvine California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology 220 Faculty and Senior Researchers Layered Structure Materials and Devices Networked Infrastructure Interfaces and Software Strategic Applications Policy New Funding Model (4 Years) State $100M Industry $140M Private $30 M Campus $30M Federal $ M Total $ M One of Three Awarded

3 The Conceptual Framework of Cal-(IT)2

4 Materials and Devices Team, UCSD
Novel Materials and Devices are Needed in Every Part of the New Internet Materials and Devices Team, UCSD

5 Components for Assembling Microdevices
Valveless Microfluidics Mechanical Stress and Acceleration Sensors Micro Optical Assemblies (Lenses and Mirrors) MEMS structures fabricated and tested at the UCI Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility

6 Nanoelectronics Holds the Promise of Extending Moore’s Law
“Because of the recent rapid and radical progress in molecular electronics – where individual atoms and molecules replace lithographically drawn transistors – and related nanoscale technologies, we should be able to meet or exceed the Moore’s Law rate of progress for another 30 years.” --Bill Joy, in “Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us”, Wired April 2000

7 Nanotechnology Blurs the Distinction Between Biology and Physics
50 nanometers Human Rhinovirus IBM Quantum Corral Iron Atoms on Copper

8 Simulation of Semiconductor Laser Diodes
Three Interacting Problems Carrier Transport (Shockley Eqns.) Electromagnetic Modes (Maxwell Eqns.) Quantum Mechanical Energy States (Schroedinger Eqns.) Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Optical Cavity Formed in Vertical Direction Light Taken From Top of Device (Surface Emission) Mirrors Formed by Stacks of Dielectric Layers Hess, Grupen, Oyafuso, Klein, & Register National Center for Computational Electronics

9 UCSD Cal-(IT)2 Materials and Devices Program
Students and Post Docs Technical support staff Faculty Molecular materials/ devices Advanced fabrication and characterization facility: State-of-the-art capability for materials and device processing/analysis Chemical/ biological sensors Materials theory/ simulation Nanophotonic components Novel electronic materials Advanced display materials GaAs-based low-power MOS High-speed optical switches Nanoscale ultralow power electronics Spintronics GaN-based microwave transistors Source: UCSD M&D Group

10 Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center Proposal
Multidisciplinary Team UCSD Physics (Schuller, Sham, Dynes, Hellman) UCSD ECE, Chem, Bioeng, MAE, Chem Eng, others Nanoscale Devices and Systems Architectures Nanoelectronics Nanophotonics Biosystems at the Nanoscale Nanofabrication by Biomolecular Recognition Electrochemical Nanofabrication Light Tweezers Nanoscale Structures, Novel Phenomena, and Quantum Effects Nanolithography and Growth Nanoscale Characterization Quantum Effects

11 Planned Cal-(IT)2 UCSD Clean Room Facility

12 BI / NCSA Remote Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Source: Lyding, Brady

13 Nanotechnology Will be Essential for Photonics
VCSEL + Near-field polarizer : Efficient polarization control,mode stabilization, and heat management Composite nonlinear, E-O, and artificial dielectric materials control and enhance near-field coupling Near-field coupling between pixels in Form-birefringent CGH (FBCGH) FBCGH possesses dual-functionality such as focusing and beam steering Wavelength ( m m) 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 Reflectivity 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 TE TM Information I/O through surface wave, guided wave,and optical fiber from near-field edge and surface coupling Near-field E-O modulator controls optical properties and near-field micro-cavity enhances the effect +V -V Angle (degree) 20 30 40 TM Efficiency Near-field E-O Modulator + micro-cavity FBCGH VCSEL Near-field E-O coupler Micro polarizer Fiber tip Grating coupler Thickness ( 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 TM 0th order efficiency RCWA Transparency Theory Near-field coupling 3. Nanooptics for Photonic Integrated Chips Near-field interactions in ADNs provide a variety of functionalities which are critical in optoelectronic systems and packaging. For example: nanostructured polarization optics can be readily incorporated with VCSEL technology for polarization control and mode stabilization; near field programmable diffractive optic modulators allow for signal encoding with low drive voltages; and FBCGHs can be used for beam control, steering, and switching. In addition, near-field optical devices based on ADNs facilitate miniaturization, as well as the development of multifunctional devices, greatly increasing the amount of functionality which can be achieved in a given size. Near-field optical materials and properties are also instrumental in the development of higher density integrated optoelectronic systems. Since the optical properties of the near-field materials are controlled by the geometry, there is flexibility in the choice of constituent materials, facilitating the implementation of a wide range of devices using compatible materials for ease of fabrication and integration. In addition, the analysis of the near field coupling is critical to the development of densely integrated systems-in terms of both analyzing and isolating undesirable crosstalk between integrated structures, as well as increasing density through the use of near-field coupling between devices. Source: Shaya Fainman, UCSD

14 Building a Quantum Network Will Require Three Important Advances
The development of a robust means of creating, storing and entangling quantum bits and using them for transmission, synchronization and teleportation The development of the mathematical underpinnings and algorithms necessary to implement quantum protocols The development of a repeater for long distance transmission with the minimum number of quantum gates consistent with error free transmission QUIST DSO ITO MTO DARPA

15 Quantum Telecommunications Systems DARPA Proposal
Multidisciplinary Team (UCSD, CalTech) Physics (Sham, Schuller, Goodkind, Scherer) Math (Meyers, Wallach) ECE (Fainman, Yu, Rao, Tu) Protocols for Secure Quantum Communication Quantum Devices General Quantum Telecommunication Systems Algorithms Quantum Channel Characterization Bandwidth Enhancement

16 Possible Multiple Qubit Quantum Computer
SEM picture of posts fabricated at the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility PI John Goodkind (UCSD Physics) & Roberto Panepucci of the CNF Electrons Floating over Liquid He One Electron per Gold Post 500 nm NSF ITR PROGRAM CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY/ UCSD/MICHIGAN STATE

17 The Wireless Internet will Transform Computational Science and Engineering
Teraflop Supercomputers Simulate in Dynamic 3D Evolving a System Requires Knowing the Initial State Add Wireless Sensors and Embedded Processors Give Detailed State Information Allows for Comparison of Simulation with Reality Computational Fields Environmental Modeling Civil Infrastructure Responses to Earthquakes Ecological Modeling Biomedical Systems Intelligent Transportation

18 The Wireless Internet Adds Bio-Chemical-Physical Sensors to the Grid
From Experiments to Wireless Infrastructure Scripps Institution of Oceanography San Diego Supercomputer Center Cal-(IT)2 Building on Pioneering Work of Hans-Werner Braun & Frank Vernon Source: John Orcutt, SIO

19 Bringing the Civil Infrastructure Online
New Bay Bridge Tower with Lateral Shear Links Wireless Sensor Arrays Linked to Crisis Management Control Rooms Source: UCSD Structural Engineering Dept.

20 The High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network
Linking Astronomical Observatories to the Internet is a Major Driver NSF Funded PI, Hans-Werner Braun, SDSC Co-PI, Frank Vernon, SIO 45mbps Duplex Backbone

21 Wireless Antennas Anchor Network High Speed Backbone
Source: Hans-Werner Braun, SDSC

22 Coming -- The Grid Physics Network
Petabyte-scale computational environment for data intensive science CMS and Atlas Projects of the Large Hadron Collider Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Sloan Digital Sky Survey (200 million objects each with ~100 attributes) Paul Avery (Univ. of Florida) and Ian Foster (U. Chicago and ANL), Lead PIs Largest NSF Information Technology Research Grant 20 Institutions Involved $12 million over four years Requires distributed megacomputer

23 Entropia’s Planetary Computer Grew to a Teraflop in Only Two Years
The Great Mersenne Prime (2P-1) Search (GIMPS) Found the First Million Digit Prime Deployed in Over 80 Countries

24 SETI@home Demonstrated that PC Internet Computing Could Grow to Megacomputers
Running on 500,000 PCs, ~1000 CPU Years per Day 485,821 CPU Years so far Sophisticated Data & Signal Processing Analysis Distributes Datasets from Arecibo Radio Telescope Next Step- Allen Telescope Array

25 Companies Competing for Leadership in Internet Computing
Intel Establishes Peer-to-Peer Working Group

26 Entropia Donation brings Internet Computing to Scientific Researchers
Two Agreements Announced November 9, 2000 at SC00 Entropia, Inc., and the Alliance Entropia, Inc., and the NPACI Entropia Will Donate 200 Million CPU Hours to PACI Program Largest Computing Platform for National Academic User Community Comparable to 10 Years Capacity of the Largest LES Systems Empower Computational Scientists Access to Massive Resources Drive Development of Computer Science Scalable Computational Algorithms and Techniques Andrew Chien, Entropia, SC00

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