F ROM S MALLEST TO L ARGEST Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism
T YPES OF CELLS ( THERE ARE OVER 20 KINDS ) Epithelial cells Gland cells Hormone secreting cells Storage cells Barrier function cells Ciliated cells Contractile cells Blood cells Sensory cells Neuron cells Lens cells Pigment cells Nurse cells
T ISSUES – A RE FORMED BY MANY CELLS COMING TOGETHER.
T HERE ARE FOUR MAIN TYPES OF TISSUES : Epithelial Tissue - cells of epithelial tissue pack tightly together and form continuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Examples: skin, inside of mouth, etc. Connective Tissue - connective tissue adds support and structure to the body. Examples: tendons, ligaments, blood, bone, etc.
Muscle Tissue - contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past one another and allow movement. Examples: skeletal, smooth, cardiac Nerve Tissue - has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals in the body. Examples: nerves
O RGANS : A STRUCTURE THAT CONTAINS AT LEAST TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE FUNCTIONING TOGETHER FOR A COMMON PURPOSE
T HERE ARE MANY TYPES OF ORGANS Liver Kidneys Heart Skin Brain Lungs Spleen Pancreas
O RGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Pancreas Liver Kidney Small Intestine Large Intestine
P ANCREAS Produces enzymes to help digest our food. It adds the enzymes to the small intestine after our food leaves the stomach Produces insulin which controls blood sugar levels
L IVER Keeps blood sugar level constant Filters harmful substances from the blood
K IDNEY Filters waste products (Urea) from the blood and sends them to the bladder Helps retain water
S MALL INTESTINE Digests food and absorb nutrients into the blood stream.
L ARGE INTESTINE Absorbs water from our waste before it leaves the body.
B ODY ( ORGAN ) S YSTEMS - ARE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT ORGANS THAT WORK TOGETHER TO PROVIDE A COMMON FUNCTION.
O UR BODIES HAVE 11 ORGAN SYSTEMS : C IRCULATORY SYSTEM, NERVOUS SYSTEM, SKELETAL SYSTEM, ENDOCRINE SYSTEM, REPRODUCTIVE, MUSCULAR, IMMUNE, URINARY ( EXCRETORY ), RESPIRATORY, SKIN, AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS. B ODY S YSTEMS WE WILL DISCUSS : Respiratory Digestive Circulatory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Nervous
Function? Obtain oxygen and transfer it to the blood Get rid of carbon dioxide Dependence? Depends on circulatory system to transport oxygen and CO 2 Depends on nervous system to regulate breathing All systems depend on it for oxygen and getting rid of CO 2
Function? Obtain nutrients from food Get rid of waste Dependence? Depends on circulatory system to transport food to all cells Depends on nervous system to regulate muscle contraction of stomach, intestines All systems depend on it for food and energy needs
Parts Thyroid gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Function? Controls chemical reactions by releasing hormones from glands. Examples: Growth and development, blood sugar levels, adrenaline, Dependence on other systems? Controls breakdown of food Depends on circulatory system to transport hormones
N ERVOUS S YSTEMS Parts Brain Spinal Chord Nerves Function Receive information from senses, process it, and send signals to respond Dependence Skeletal system protects it Digestive system provides food for energy Controls muscle contraction, and just about everything else
C HICKEN Muscle Tendons Skin Bone Bone marrow – if you can break the bone Layer between skin and muscle Layer between muscle and bone Fat
O RGANISMS - E NTIRE LIVING THINGS THAT CAN CARRY OUT ALL BASIC LIFE PROCESSES. Bacteria Amoeba Mushroom Sunflower Human
W HAT DO WE NEED TO DO IN ORDER TO SURVIVE Getting energy Respiratory system – gets oxygen Digestive system – gets nutrients from food Getting rid of waste Respiratory system – gets rid of carbon dioxide Digestive system – gets rid of stuff we don’t use from our food Urinary system – gets rid of waste products from the rest of our body Regulating bodily functions
Nervous system – brain controls heart beat, breathing, contraction of stomach and intestines and many more Endocrine system – releases hormones which control chemical reactions in our body