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Extending the Internet Throughout the Physical World

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1 Extending the Internet Throughout the Physical World
Keynote to The EC-US Taskforce on Biotechnology Research Arlington, VA Sept 9, 2001 Larry Smarr Department of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology

2 Towards a Global Biological Knowledge Grid
Capture and Integrate Multiple Scales of Science Genomes, Proteins, Metabolic Pathways Cellular Systems Organism Models Ecological Systems Geographic Biodiversity Environmental Interactions Adapting to the Emerging Information Infrastructure Wireless Access--Anywhere, Anytime Distributed Sensors, Data, People, Computers From the Web to the Grid Highly Parallel Light Waves Through Fiber Emergence of a Distributed Planetary Computer

3 Dynamic Growth in Mobile Internet Forecast of Internet users worldwide
3G Adds Mobility, QoS, and High Speeds 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Mobile Internet Fixed Internet Subscribers (millions) Source: Ericsson

4 California Has Undertaken a Grand Experiment in Partnering
The California Institute for Bioengineering, Biotechnology, and Quantitative Biomedical Research The Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society UCD UCB UCM UCSF The California NanoSystems Institute UCSC The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology UCSB UCLA UCI UCSD

5 Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC
The UCSD “Living Grid Laboratory”— Fiber, Wireless, Compute, Data, Software Commodity Internet, Internet2 CENIC’s ONI, Cal-REN2, Dig. Cal. PACI Distributed Terascale Facility Wireless WAN Wireless LANs SIO SDSC CS Chem Med Eng. / Cal-(IT)2 Hosp High-speed optical core ½ Mile Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC

6 The High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network
Cal-(IT)2 Will Build on This Pioneering Experiment Add New Ecological Sensor Arrays Try Out New Wireless Technologies Data Analysis Outreach and Education NSF Funded PI, Hans-Werner Braun, SDSC, UCSD Co-PI, Frank Vernon, SIO, UCSD 45mbps Duplex Backbone

7 As Our Bodies Move On-Line Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Merge
New Sensors—Israeli Video Pill Battery, Light, & Video Camera Images Stored on Hip Device Next Step—Putting You On-Line! Wireless Internet Transmission Key Metabolic and Physical Variables Model -- Dozens of 25 Processors and 60 Sensors / Actuators Inside of our Cars Post-Genomic Individualized Medicine Combine Genetic Code Body Data Flow Use Powerful AI Data Mining Techniques FDA Approved Aug. 2001

8 Adding Brilliance to Wireless Sensors With Systems-on-Chip
Critical New Role of Power Aware Systems Applications Internet Radio Sensors Embedded Software Protocol Processors Processors Memory DSP Ad Hoc Hierarchical Network of Brilliant Sensors Source: Sujit Dey, UCSD ECE

9 Moore’s Law— Simple 2D Shrinking Reaches End by 2015
Intel8080 1 million transistors 1000nm Intel386 Intel486 Pentium 100 million PentiumPro Feature size (nanometers) Now I’d like to discuss some specific MTO programs beginning with Microelectronics. Over the past decades a major driver for silicon microelectronics research has been Moore’s Law which conjectures the continued shrinkage of critical chip dimensions. Progress has become so predictable that the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has developed a Road-Mapping approach to setting the challenges to sustaining progress and the materials and material processing research community has successfully met these challenges, maintaining a steady stream of results supporting continued scaling of Si-CMOS devices to smaller dimensions. Recent DARPA programs have looked beyond this road mapping process. Only a few years ago modeling predicted that scaling CMOS below 70nm would not be possible, but this year we have demonstrated devices with useful transistor characteristics having critical dimensions approaching 10nm. With the industry only beginning to gear up for the 100nm generation, and many problems remain to be addressed, this result provides assurance for significantly extending the potential life of scaled CMOS. The real challenge now is how to we take full advantage of what microsystems a billion-transistor chip will make possible. One real possibility will be micro-Systems-On-A-Chip (SOC) enabling new architectural approaches to information processing facilitated by these capabilities. Having achieved 10 nm transistors, analysis indicates that for the future we really are approaching hard physical limits where quantum effects dominate performance of these classic MOS devices. However, our insights leave us confident that alternative technologies will allow extending operation to even smaller dimensions and to investigate these possibilities we are launching programs exploring the nano-scale domain of Beyond Scaled-Silicon CMOS. We believe that achieving integration on this scale will revolutionize the way we process information within Microsystems, and perhaps more significant than the results for traditional applications, we expect they will have major impact on the emerging intersection of Bio: Info: Micro worlds. 100nm PentiumIII IA-64 10 billion 15 DARPA Nanosciences 10nm Molecular Electronics/ Quantum / Bio 3-D CMOS + - HYBRIDS 1nm 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 ? Bipolar, NMOS CMOS Source: Shankar Sastry, DARPA ITO

10 The Perfect Storm: Convergence of Engineering with Bio, Physics, & IT
2 mm Nanogen MicroArray 500x Magnification MEMS VCSELaser 5 nanometers Human Rhinovirus IBM Quantum Corral Iron Atoms on Copper 400x Magnification NANO Nanobioinfotechnology

11 Why the Grid is the Future
Scientific American, January 2001

12 Layered Software Approach to Building the Planetary Grid
Science Portals & Workbenches Twenty-First Century Applications Computational Services P e r f o m a n c Networking, Devices and Systems Grid Services (resource independent) Grid Fabric (resource dependent) Access Services & Technology Access Grid Computational “A source book for the history of the future” -- Vint Cerf Edited by Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman

13 Sloan Digital Sky Survey
The Grid Physics Network Is Driving the Creation of an International Grid Paul Avery (Univ. of Florida) and Ian Foster (U. Chicago and ANL), Lead PIs Largest NSF Information Technology Research Grant 20 Institutions Involved Built on Globus Middleware Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, Compact Muon Selenoid, A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS Sloan Digital Sky Survey LHC CMS ATLAS

14 The EUROGRID Creates an EU Virtual Machine Room
UNICORE Java Middleware Driven by Applications Links to Key Databases One Interface to Multiple Machines

15 STAR TAP: Science Technology And Research Transit Access Point
Canada Japan Korea (2) Taiwan Singapore (2) Australia (2) China Norway Iceland Sweden Finland Denmark Russia France Netherlands CERN Israel Ireland Belgium Europe/DANTE United Kingdom Chile, Brazil ANSP, Brazil RNP, Mexico US: Abilene, DREN, ESnet, NISN, NREN, vBNS/vBNS+ (Abilene ITN) (CA*net3 ITN)

16 Star Light International Wavelength Switching Hub
Asia-Pacific SURFnet, CERN CANARIE Seattle Portland NYC Asia-Pacific TeraGrid Caltech SDSC *ANL, UIC, NU, UC, IIT, MREN AMPATH AMPATH Source: Tom DeFanti, Maxine Brown

17 The NSF TeraGrid Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure
This will Become the National Backbone to Support Multiple Large Scale Science and Engineering Projects Applications Visualization NCSA 8 TF 4 TB Memory 240 TB disk Caltech 0.5 TF 0.4 TB Memory 86 TB disk Argonne 1 TF 0.25 TB Memory 25 TB disk TeraGrid Backbone (40 Gbps) SDSC 4.1 TF 2 TB Memory 250 TB disk Compute Data

18 Advancing Realism in Modeling Cell Structures
Pre-Blue Horizon (mid-1990s): Model Electrostatic Forces of a Structure up to 50,000 Atoms a Single Protein or Small Assembly Pre-TeraGrid (2001): Model One Million Atoms Simulate Drawing a Drug Molecule Through a Microtubule or Tugging RNA Into a Ribosome TeraGrid (2003): Models of 10 Million Atoms Model Function, Structure Movement, and Interaction at the Cellular Level for Drug Design and to Understand Disease Baker, N., Sept, D., Joseph, S., Holst, M., and McCammon, J. A. PNAS 98: (2001) Source: Fran Berman

19 Source: Mark Ellisman, UCSD
Prototyping the Grid Cyber-Infrastructure for a Biomedical Imaging Research Network Forming a National-Scale Grid Federating Multi-Scale Neuro-Imaging Data from Centers with High Field MRI and Advanced 3D Microscopes Source: Mark Ellisman, UCSD BIRN Deep Web Duke UCLA Cal Tech Harvard UCSD NCRR Imaging and Computing Resources UCSD Wireless “Pad” Web Interface Surface Web SDSC Cal-(IT)2 Part of the UCSD CRBS Center for Research on Biological Structure

20 Creating a Virtual Global Research Lab
From Telephone Conference Calls to Access Grid International Video Meetings Creating a Virtual Global Research Lab Access Grid Lead-Argonne NSF STARTAP Lead-UIC’s Elec. Vis. Lab

21 Vast Data Sets Will Require High Resolution Data Analysis Facilities
Celera Control Room SDSC Cal-(IT)2 Control Room SIO Cox Communications Teraburst Networks Panoram Technologies Newsday Photo Ira Schwarz

22 Grid-Enabled Collaborative Analysis of Ecosystem Dynamics Datasets
Chesapeake Bay Data in Collaborative Virtual Environment

23 Common Portal Architecture Customized for Biological Sciences
Web Browser - Portal Interface State Values User Preferences Portal Engine Analysis Tools - Genome, Protein, & Metabolic Pathways - Cellular Models - Integrative Systems - Species Identification - GIS Biodiversity - Data Mining - ... Data Gather HTML XML Legacy and Problem Specific Databases, Collections, & Literature

24 A Global IT Strategy Is Needed to Integrate the Emerging Plant Genomes

25 Immense Computing Power Will Be Required to Lead in Post-Genomic Research
”We Don’t Need an Evolution in Computing, We Need a Revolution”—Craig Venter Sandia and Celera Will Collaborate On: Advanced Algorithms Visualization Technologies for Analyzing Massive Quantities of Experimental Data From High-Throughput Instruments Equivalent to 100,000 Pentium 4’s! Prototype by 2004

26 Biology is at the Leading Edge of Using the Emerging Planetary Computer
Application Software Has Been Downloaded to Over 30,000 PCs Over 500 CPU-Years Computed Total Storage 50 Terabytes, Peak Speed 13 Teraflops Art Olson, The Scripps Research Institute In Silico Drug Design

27 A Planetary MegaComputer— Distributed Computing & Mass Storage
Napster Meets ! Assume Ten Million PCs in Five Years Average Speed Ten GigaFLOP Average Free Storage 100 GB Planetary Computer Capacity 100,000 TetaFLOP Speed 1 Million Terabyte Storage Global Distributed Server for Mobile Clients

28 Will a New Form of Intelligence Join Human Kind?
1 Million x Will the Grid Become Self- Organizing Powered Aware? Source: Hans Moravec

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