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Presentation for the Microbe Project Interagency Team

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation for the Microbe Project Interagency Team"— Presentation transcript:

1 “Building an Information Infrastructure to Support Microbial Metagenomic Sciences"
Presentation for the Microbe Project Interagency Team [www.microbeproject.gov] UCSD La Jolla, CA January 14, 2006 Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology; Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD

2 1200 Researchers in Two Buildings
Calit2 Brings Computer Scientists and Engineers Together with Biomedical Researchers Some Areas of Concentration: Metagenomics Genomic Analysis of Organisms Evolution of Genomes Cancer Genomics Human Genomic Variation and Disease Mitochondrial Evolution Proteomics Computational Biology Information Theory and Biological Systems UC Irvine UC San Diego 1200 Researchers in Two Buildings

3 PI Larry Smarr

4 Announcing Tuesday January 17, 2006

5 The Sargasso Sea Experiment The Power of Environmental Metagenomics
Yielded a Total of Over 1 billion Base Pairs of Non-Redundant Sequence Displayed the Gene Content, Diversity, & Relative Abundance of the Organisms Sequences from at Least 1800 Genomic Species, including 148 Previously Unknown Identified over 1.2 Million Unknown Genes J. Craig Venter, et al. Science 2 April 2004: Vol. 304. pp MODIS-Aqua satellite image of ocean chlorophyll in the Sargasso Sea grid about the BATS site from 22 February 2003

6 CAMERA will include All Sorcerer II Metagenomic Data
Marine Genome Sequencing Project Measuring the Genetic Diversity of Ocean Microbes CAMERA will include All Sorcerer II Metagenomic Data

7 Much of Genome Work Has Occurred in Animals
Evolution is the Principle of Biological Systems: Most of Evolutionary Time Was in the Microbial World You Are Here Much of Genome Work Has Occurred in Animals Source: Carl Woese, et al

8 Major New Science Challenge: Understanding the Transition from Collective to Species Evolution
“Bacteria naturally reside in communities, in ecosystems. It is hard to find a bacterial niche that does not comprise hundreds or thousands of different species, all interacting in intricate delicate ways, to make a fascinatingly complex and stable whole.” “In an era of rampant horizontal gene transfer, organismal evolution would be basically collective. It is the community of organisms that evolves, not the various individual organismal types.” “This shift from a primitive genetic free-for-all to modern organisms must by all account have been one of the most profound happenings in the whole of evolutionary history.” --Carl Woese , Evolving Biological Organization in Microbial Phylogeny and Evolution, ed. Jan Sapp (2005)

9 GenBank Protein Data Bank
Genomic Data Is Growing Rapidly, But Metagenomics Will Vastly Increase The Scale… 100 Billion Bases! 35,000 Structures GenBank Protein Data Bank Total Data < 1TB

10 Metagenomics Will Couple to Earth Observations Which Add Several TBs/Day
Source: Glenn Iona, EOSDIS Element Evolution Technical Working Group January 6-7, 2005

11 Performance per Dollar Spent
Optical Networks Are Becoming the 21st Century Cyberinfrastructure Driver Optical Fiber (bits per second) (Doubling time 9 Months) Data Storage (bits per square inch) (Doubling time 12 Months) Performance per Dollar Spent Silicon Computer Chips (Number of Transistors) (Doubling time 18 Months) 1 2 3 4 5 Number of Years Scientific American, January 2001

12 Internet2 Backbone is 10,000 Mbps! Throughput is < 0.5% to End User
Challenge: Average Throughput of NASA Data Products to End User is < 50 Mbps Tested October 2005 Internet2 Backbone is 10,000 Mbps! Throughput is < 0.5% to End User

13 Solution: Individual 1 or 10Gbps Lightpaths -- “Lambdas on Demand”
(WDM) “Lambdas” Source: Steve Wallach, Chiaro Networks

14 National Lambda Rail (NLR) and TeraGrid Provides Cyberinfrastructure Backbone for U.S. Researchers
NSF’s TeraGrid Has 4 x 10Gb Lambda Backbone Seattle International Collaborators Portland Boise UC-TeraGrid UIC/NW-Starlight Ogden/ Salt Lake City Cleveland Chicago New York City San Francisco Denver Pittsburgh Washington, DC Kansas City Raleigh Albuquerque Tulsa Los Angeles Atlanta San Diego Phoenix Dallas Baton Rouge Las Cruces / El Paso Links Two Dozen State and Regional Optical Networks Jacksonville Pensacola DOE, NSF, & NASA Using NLR San Antonio Houston NLR 4 x 10Gb Lambdas Initially Capable of 40 x 10Gb wavelengths at Buildout

15 Lambdas Give End Users Sustained ~ 10 Gbps Data Flow Rates
GSFC Scientific and Engineering Network (SEN) Mrtg-based `Daily' Graph (5 Minute Average) Bits per second In and Out On Selected Interfaces On August 5, 2005, GSFC’s Bill Fink simultaneously conducted two 15-minute-duration UDP-based 4.5-Gbps flow tests, with one flow between GSFC-UCSD and the other between GSFC-StarLight/Chicago. This filled both the NLR/WASH-STAR and DRAGON/channel49 lambdas to 90% of capacity. Flows were also tested in both directions. He measured greater than 9-Gbps aggregate in each direction and no-to-negligible packet losses. DRAGON 10Gig DWDM XFP 5 August 2005 200 Times Faster Than Standard Internet2! chance1 10Gig (eth1 Intel Pro/10GbE) 5 August 2005 chance2 10Gig (eth1 Intel Pro/10GbE) 5 August 2005 Source: Pat Gary, NASA GSFC 15

16 Global Connections Between University Research Centers at 10Gbps
Maxine Brown, Tom DeFanti, Co-Chairs i Grid 2005 T H E G L O B A L L A M B D A I N T E G R A T E D F A C I L I T Y September 26-30, 2005 University of California, San Diego California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology 21 Countries Driving 50 Demonstrations 1 or 10Gbps to Building Sept 2005

17 NSF EarthScope and ORION
The OptIPuter Project – Creating a LambdaGrid “Web” for Gigabyte Data Objects NSF Large Information Technology Research Proposal Calit2 (UCSD, UCI) and UIC Lead Campuses—Larry Smarr PI Partnering Campuses: USC, SDSU, NW, TA&M, UvA, SARA, NASA Industrial Partners IBM, Sun, Telcordia, Chiaro, Calient, Glimmerglass, Lucent $13.5 Million Over Five Years Linking Global Scale Science Projects to User’s Linux Clusters NIH Biomedical Informatics NSF EarthScope and ORION Research Network

18 What is the OptIPuter? Applications Drivers  Interactive Analysis of Large Data Sets OptIPuter Nodes  Scalable PC Clusters with Graphics Cards IP over Lambda Connectivity Predictable Backplane Open Source LambdaGrid Middleware Network is Reservable Data Retrieval and Mining  Lambda Attached Data Servers High Defn. Vis., Collab. SW  High Performance Collaboratory See Nov 2003 Communications of the ACM for Articles on OptIPuter Technologies

19 End User Device: Tiled Wall Driven by OptIPuter Graphics Cluster

20 Calit2 Intends to Jump Beyond Traditional Web-Accessible Databases
W E B PORTAL (pre-filtered, queries metadata) Data Backend (DB, Files) Request Response BIRN PDB NCBI Genbank + many others Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC, Calit2

21 Calit2’s Direct Access Core Architecture Will Create Next Generation Metagenomics Server
Sargasso Sea Data Sorcerer II Expedition (GOS) JGI Community Sequencing Project Moore Marine Microbial Project NASA Goddard Satellite Data Community Microbial Metagenomics Data Traditional User Dedicated Compute Farm (100s of CPUs) Flat File Server Farm W E B PORTAL Request Data- Base Farm 10 GigE Fabric Response + Web Services Web (other service) Local Cluster Environment Direct Access Lambda Cnxns TeraGrid: Cyberinfrastructure Backplane (scheduled activities, e.g. all by all comparison) (10000s of CPUs) Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC, Calit2

22 First Implementation of the CAMERA Complex
Compute Database & Storage

23 Analysis Data Sets, Data Services, Tools, and Workflows
Assemblies of Metagenomic Data e.g, GOS, JGI CSP Annotations Genomic and Metagenomic Data “All-against-all” Alignments of ORFs Updated Periodically Gene Clusters and Associated Data Profiles, Multiple-Sequence Alignments, HMMs, Phylogenies, Peptide Sequences Data Services ‘Raw’ and Specialized Analysis Data Rich Query Facilities Tools and Workflows Navigate and Sift Raw and Analysis Data Publish Workflows and Develop New Ones Prioritize Features via Dialogue with Community Source: Saul Kravitz Director of Software Engineering J. Craig Venter Institute

24 CAMERA Timeline Release 1: Mid-2006 Release 2: Early-2007 Subsequent
Majority of GOS + Moore Microbe Genome Data 6 Gbp Has Been Assembled Initial Versions of Core Tools BLAST, Reference Alignment Viewer Release 2: Early-2007 Additional Data Additional/Improved Tools Improved Usability Subsequent Move Towards Semantic DB, Direct Access Additional Tools & Data Based on Community Feedback

25 The Bioinformatics Core of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics will be Housed in the Building Extremely Thermostable -- Useful for Many Industrial Processes (e.g. Chemical and Food) 173 Structures (122 from JCSG) Determining the Protein Structures of the Thermotoga Maritima Genome 122 T.M. Structures Solved by JCSG (75 Unique In The PDB) Direct Structural Coverage of 25% of the Expressed Soluble Proteins Probably Represents the Highest Structural Coverage of Any Organism Source: John Wooley, UCSD

26 Located in Calit2@UCSD Building
Providing Integrated Grid Software and Infrastructure for Multi-Scale BioModeling National Biomedical Computation Resource an NIH supported resource center Located in Building Grid and Cluster Computing Applications Infrastructure Rocks Grid of Clusters APBS Continuity Gtomo2 TxBR Autodock GAMESS QMView Biology driven Science has top priority Infrastructure support Portable solution package Balance technology development and scientific discovery Mix production software and new technology framework Productive and future proof APBS image: CCMV capsid electrostatic potential mapped on the solvent-accessible molecular surface Zhang, D., R. Konecny, N.A. Baker, J.A. McCammon. Electrostatic Interaction between RNA and Protein Capsid in CCMV Simulated by a Coarse-grain RNA model and a Monte Carlo Approach. Biopolymers, 75(4), (2004). [link] Abstract: Although many viruses have been crystallized and the protein capsid structures have been determined by x-ray crystallography, the nucleic acids often cannot be resolved. This is especially true for RNA viruses. The lack of information about the conformation of DNA/RNA greatly hinders our understanding of the assembly mechanism of various viruses. Here we combine a coarse-grain model and a Monte Carlo method to simulate the distribution of viral RNA inside the capsid of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. Our results show that there is very strong interaction between the N-terminal residues of the capsid proteins, which are highly positive charged, and the viral RNA. Without these residues, the binding energy disfavors the binding of RNA by the capsid. The RNA forms a shell close to the capsid with the highest densities associated with the capsid dimers. These high-density regions are connected to each other in the shape of a continuous net of triangles. The overall icosahedral shape of the net overlaps with the capsid subunit icosahedral organization. Medium density of RNA is found under the pentamers of the capsid. These findings are consistent with experimental observations. Figure 3. The electrostatic potential mapped on the solvent-accessible molecular surface of the capsid viewed from outside (a) and inside (b). The color bar is the same for both images. GAMESS/QMView Lepitopterene Molecule Autodock: Andy’s lab new paper using APBS, Autodock in J. Med. Chem Nonhomogeneous Epicardial Strain Measurements of Anterior LV During Acute Myocardial Ischemia Rich Clients Web Portal Grid Middleware and Web Services Workflow APBSCommand Middleware PMV ADT Vision Telescience Portal Continuity

27 Source: Karin Remington J. Craig Venter Institute
Metagenomics “Extreme Assembly” Requires Large Amount of Pixel Real Estate Prochlorococcus Microbacterium Burkholderia Rhodobacter SAR-86 unknown Source: Karin Remington J. Craig Venter Institute

28 Source: Karin Remington J. Craig Venter Institute
Metagenomics Requires a Global View of Data and the Ability to Zoom Into Detail Interactively Overlay of Metagenomics Data onto Sequenced Reference Genomes (This Image: Prochloroccocus marinus MED4) Source: Karin Remington J. Craig Venter Institute

29 The OptIPuter – Creating High Resolution Portals Over Dedicated Optical Channels to Global Science Data 300 MPixel Image! Source: Mark Ellisman, David Lee, Jason Leigh Green: Purkinje Cells Red: Glial Cells Light Blue: Nuclear DNA Calit2 (UCSD, UCI) and UIC Lead Campuses—Larry Smarr PI Partners: SDSC, USC, SDSU, NW, TA&M, UvA, SARA, KISTI, AIST

30 Scalable Displays Allow Both Global Content and Fine Detail
Source: Mark Ellisman, David Lee, Jason Leigh 30 MPixel SunScreen Display Driven by a 20-node Sun Opteron Visualization Cluster

31 Allows for Interactive Zooming from Cerebellum to Individual Neurons
Source: Mark Ellisman, David Lee, Jason Leigh

32 The OptIPuter Enabled Collaboratory: Remote Researchers Jointly Exploring Complex Data
Source: Mark Ellisman, NCMIR Calit2/EVL/NCMIR Tiled Displays with HD Video New Home of SDSC/Calit2 Synthesis Center Source: Chaitan Baru, SDSC

33 Eliminating Distance to Unify Remote Laboratories
August 8, 2005 25 Miles Venter Institute SIO/UCSD OptIPuter Visualized Data NASA Goddard HDTV Over Lambda

34 OptIPuter + CalREN-XD + TeraGrid = “OptiGrid”
Calit2/SDSC Proposal to Create a UC Cyberinfrastructure of “On-Ramps” to National LambdaRail Resources UC San Francisco UC San Diego UC Riverside UC Irvine UC Davis UC Berkeley UC Santa Cruz UC Santa Barbara UC Los Angeles UC Merced OptIPuter + CalREN-XD + TeraGrid = “OptiGrid” Creating a Critical Mass of End Users on a Secure LambdaGrid Source: Fran Berman, SDSC , Larry Smarr, Calit2

35 Science Falkowski and Vargas 304 (5667): 58
Looking Back Nearly 4 Billion Years In the Evolution of Microbe Genomics Science Falkowski and Vargas 304 (5667): 58


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