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Society and Culture Association

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Presentation on theme: "Society and Culture Association"— Presentation transcript:

1 Society and Culture Association
Personal Interest Projects Central Material extracts

2 Central Material The central material will be in written form and may be accompanied by photographs, tables, graphs and/or diagrams that should be labelled and incorporated into the text through discussion. The central material should be between 2500 and 4000 words. The central material must contain a cross-cultural perspective and address continuity and/or change. The cross-cultural perspective and continuity and/or change should be integrated in the central material of the Personal Interest Project. Assessment and Reporting in Society and Culture, pages 10-11

3 Central Material Students should consider the following in the preparation of their Personal Interest Project: Clarity Is the topic clearly stated? Are the purposes and procedures of the Personal Interest Project clear? Conceptual content Does the Personal Interest Project reflect the concepts of the course? Assessment and Reporting in Society and Culture, pages 11-12

4 Central Material Methodological content
Does the Personal Interest Project demonstrate some of the methodologies essential to the Society and Culture course plus any other distinctive procedures? Are the methodologies appropriate for the topic? Is there evidence of a systematic approach to the study of the topic? Is there an awareness of both the limitations and the values of the methodologies used? Students should consider the ethical implications of both their topic and the methodologies they employ to research that topic. Assessment and Reporting in Society and Culture, pages 11-12

5 Central Material Students should consider the following in the preparation of their Personal Interest Project: Subject matter content Is the subject matter accurate, relevant to the topic and adequately explained for the purposes of the project? Cross-cultural content Does the topic reflect some knowledge and understanding of viewpoints different from that of the immediate culture of the student in terms of, for example, socioeconomic group, gender, ethnicity or location? Assessment and Reporting in Society and Culture, pages 11-12

6 Central Material Continuity and change
Does the topic reflect some knowledge and understanding of continuity and/or change, for example viewpoints of different generations, links between the past, the present and the future? Integrative skills Has the Personal Interest Project integrated various aspects of Society and Culture? Does the Personal Interest Project achieve a coherent structure? Do the conclusions proceed from the statements in the introduction and the arguments presented in the central material? Is personal experience related to public knowledge? Assessment and Reporting in Society and Culture, pages 11-12

7 Central Material Communication skills
Is there evidence of social and cultural literacy? Has the student effectively communicated her or his ideas to the external audience? Originality Does the Personal Interest Project give evidence of originality in design, analysis and execution? Assessment and Reporting in Society and Culture, pages 11-12

8 Examples of Central Material Conceptual Content Sample 1
It is clear that the world has changed dramatically since the 19th century, when the structured education system was formed. There has been extensive social change, with a complete revolution regarding social mores, values and expectations, with modernisation precipitating a colossal advancement technologically. Therefore, this poses the question as to whether the education system has changed to meet the needs of the contemporary world. Sir Ken Robinson, in his book Out of Our Minds (Capstone Publishing, 2001), states that the education system is based upon the economic model of industrialism, and that this model is outmoded. He believes that to make education more relevant for contemporary society, this must be completely revolutionized. This suggests that the current education systems of most countries are based on an outdated philosophy that is largely irrelevant in modern society. Concepts are applied rather than just used in the text. They support the argument in the paragraphs Note the 1.5 line spacing that is required for all PIPs. Text should be in 12 point Times New Roman or Arial font The student integrates a secondary source, concepts and their original topic throughout the paragraphs

9 Examples of Central Material Conceptual Content Sample 2
As a person of Cambodian cultural heritage, the horrifying experiences that Cambodians have endured under the Khmer Rouge are painful to accept. Many times I attempted to imagine myself being trapped in Pol Pot’s ‘year zero’ in order to gain a sense of understanding but it only ever lasted for a few seconds because it was too distressing. However, I perceive these admirable people as my role models because if they survived such adversity then I have every chance to overcome hurdles in my life, especially if I live in a society that offers many advantages that many of us take for granted. Freedom of speech, access to education, healthcare, employment and self- determination, plus other aspects of the contemporary Australian society, has made me more appreciative of my life and potential opportunities. Application of concepts supports the methodology of personal reflection. Concepts are integrated naturally. Contains genuine and original content unique to a particular students situation. The student has demonstrated adequate communication skills in these paragraphs – the ideas are clearly understood An aim at achieving a deeper ‘sense of self’ is implicit in this sample by comparing perspectives

10 Examples of Central Material Conceptual Content Sample 3
Our health and how we perceive it depends on many factors including our opinions, gender, culture, socialization and of course the environment and micro world in which we live and interact with on a daily basis. Through the unique combination of these factors our opinions towards everyday elements of our lives, such as health care are formed. The media also plays a central role in persuading our opinions as it is our source of information on current events which occur within our macro world. The concepts appear forced in this example, with little explanation or attempts to integrate them successfully. Student mentions the macro and micro worlds but the paragraph lacks detail, direction and a coherent structure. Lacks evidence from both primary and secondary research.

11 Examples of Central Material Methodological Content Sample 2
According to my research, the influence of parents on individuals’ desire to read is largely present within all generations. 75% of all participants within my questionnaire stated that they enjoyed reading and that as children their parents had read novels and thus “children copy what they see and if you don’t come from a reading house, or haven’t been read to as a child, there’s a much stronger chance you won’t read yourself”(1). Through this conclusion, therefore, Generation Y should be reading the same amount of novels as previous generations due to the continuity of parents reading novels in front of their children. Instead, according to an American survey, “18-24 year olds read literature at significantly lower rates than adults had in previous decades”(2). Student analyses questionnaire data and seamlessly integrates this with secondary research Primary data is compared to secondary research – this can help prove or disprove the original hypothesis Sample continues over page (footnotes on next slide)

12 Examples of Central Material Methodological Content Sample 2 (cont…)
Similarly, within my focus group, the influence of parents on children’s reading habits was explored and it was determined that “reading comes with the personality of the individual” (3) as stated by the female baby boomer participant who further went to conclude “I have two grown sons, one of which reads non-stop and extremely fast whilst the other one has almost never read a book in his entire life. When my children were growing up, I constantly read in front of them and even to them.” However, another participant stated that his children had reading sessions before bed. This allowance therefore can deduce that the presence and recognition of the enjoyment of novels by parents influence a child’s desire to read or not. It is the choice that children are given by their parents, that is to read or not, that allows them to decide if they desire to undertake reading novels. (1) As quoted by Julia Strong in BBC article “Can’t read, wont read books” (2005) (2) Reading at Risk: A survey of Literacy Reading in America conducted by Mark Bauerlein (3) Female Baby Boomer participant of focus group Thought process continues in a coherent and well-structured series of paragraphs The results of another methodology are integrated and analysed. Accurately footnoted both primary and secondary material Synthesis of primary and secondary research is then apparent in the final two sentences

13 Examples of Central Material Methodological Content Sample 2
The advancement of technology within Western culture has caused continuities and changes within the reading habits of all generations. I surveyed various groups about the impact of technology within my community including those considered members of the Baby Boomer Generation, Generation X, Generation Y and the new generation referred to as Generation Z ( ) (1). Through a series of observations at the local library, questionnaires and short, open ended questions in an informal interview the results evaluated indicate that our reading capacity has “declined as we have drifted from the printed page to the screen”(2). This is specifically exemplified within my questionnaire as 81% of participants declared they spent more time watching television or using a computer than reading literature. This was further corroborated by my observations in the library as it was witnessed that many more members of the public were seated at ICT stations than wandering the aisles in search of the old fashioned book. Through this argument, it can be determined that the use and general presence of technology has impacted in various ways towards Generation Y as “For all their technological adroitness they don’t read…very well”(3). Statement / claim in first sentence of paragraph that is then explained and supported by evidence. Subject matter appears to be accurate and relevant. Identifies groups surveyed and student explicitly states that a survey is a combination of techniques including observations, questionnaires and interviews. Original statement is supported with findings from the survey and student draws a brief conclusion.

14 Examples of Central Material Methodological Content Sample 3
The pressures placed on children are obviously a major concern in regards to the educational system, but this is not the only aspect being called into question. Dr Tim Hawkes, an expert in education, has stated that; “The relevance of contemporary school education is compromised by many things; not least by exam systems designed not so much to prepare students for life, as to help them get into tertiary education or improve the resume.”T Hawkes, The Failure of Schools to Educate, Sydney Morning Herald, 8th September 2008 As part of my primary research, I conducted an interview with Dr Hawkes, in order to gain further insight into his views regarding the failings of the current education system. Hawkes discussed the problem of teaching to the exam, and the issue of being ‘fed’ material to regurgitate in an exam situation, due to its unrealistic portrayal of life for children, and their future contribution to society. Hawkes then linked this to the high drop out of university students, up to 14%, when spoon feeding is no longer a viable path to success. This notion was mirrored through my coordination of a student focus group, with one participant stating;“Because schools want that higher ranking, because the teachers want that, ‘oh my god she got five band sixes’ they’ll spoon feed kids so that they’ll do well, except when you go into uni, they don’t care, so it doesn’t prepare you at all...”However, the possibility of bias in the focus group results cannot be ignored. This could arise from a number of factors, namely the small participant pool, and the age of participants. Issue outlined in opening statement. Interview with an expert is conducted to provide deeper knowledge, set an academic tone and contribute to accurate subject matter. Stated the purpose of the interview and provided an overall picture of the outcome. Student integrates interview results with focus group results and supports with relevant quotes. Evaluation of methodology is brief, where limitations are acknowledged and possible reasons for this are provided.

15 Examples of Central Material Methodological Content Sample 4
A change to eating habits occurs because advertising persuades kids to like and request unhealthy food. Unhealthy advertisements outnumber those that promote healthy eating. Content analysis, conducted over 10 hours of children’s television shows supports this claim. Of the 205 adverts viewed, 43 were for food and only 1 of these was a government advertisement promoting healthy eating and the nutritional suggestion of 2 fruit and 5 vegetables a day. Given these results, it can be assumed that children watching television programs aimed at their age will witness a substantial amount of food advertising and a weak message promoting healthy eating. Australian studies over the last 10 years have consistently shown between 55-81% of food advertisements shown during children's viewing time are for unhealthy foods of low nutritional value such as confectionery, sweetened breakfast cereals and fast food. According to a 1996 study which compared the levels of advertising across 13 different countries, Australian television shows the highest number of food advertisements per hour during children's programs in the world. My content analysis results do not support the results of the Australian studies, as my results show that approximately 20% of advertisements were for food, not 55-81%. This probably occurred because the Australian studies were conducted by professionals and over a longer period of time, making them more reliable. A point is communicated clearly, followed by a brief outline of how content analysis was carried out. Results are recorded and a conclusion is drawn Student integrates appropriate secondary research Comparison of primary research results with other studies is made and reasons are provided for the variations that occur, acknowledging the limitation of a student study. References (below) have been removed to allow for room on the slide Singer, Dorothy G. , and Jerome L. Singer. Handbook of Children and the Media. Sage Publications, Inc., California, 2001. Accessed: 28/02/07 Author: Simone Fenech Ibid. Accessed: 28/02/07 Author: Simone Fenech

16 Examples of Central Material Methodological Content Sample 5
I believe the Khmer Rouge have also had an indirect effect on the younger generation who were born after the Khmer Rouge. From personal experience, my parent’s trauma had a major influence on my life. I would occasionally have dreams about the Khmer Rouge. Sometimes when there is conflict within my family, I tend to wonder how different my life would be if all of my relatives who passed away under the Khmer Rouge were still alive. But even trying to picture this was difficult because I have no idea what they look like because photographs were destroyed under the Khmer Rouge regime. The students’ personal experience is genuine, relevant and has shaped her life, thoughts, actions and ideas. The student made sure that they conducted interviews, focus groups and used much secondary research to ensure PIP did not rest solely upon one methodology (not evident in this extract).

17 Examples of Central Material Cross – cultural Content Sample 1
Goffman’s research found that interpersonal behaviour was controlled differently between genders. In studying iPod use, I too found that use varied between sexes. Concerns of security and feelings of apprehension in public were most commonly, but not exclusively expressed by teenage girls. Only three male participants in my focus groups had used their personal stereos as a response to any perceived or imagined threat in public. In contexts where teenage girls feel attention is unwanted or threatening, the iPod becomes a useful prop facilitating the creation of a conversational preserve as the following example shows: “Last weekend I was walking home from my friend’s house and I saw a group of boys hassling a girl up ahead… so I turned on my music and when I passed them pretended I couldn’t hear what they were saying.” (Girl, 16 years) Student considers gender as their cross-cultural component and relates findings to both primary and secondary research. Student comments on trends or anomalies in results related to the cross-cultural component of gender Female response is used to exemplify cross-cultural argument. References (below) have been removed to allow for room on the slide Goffman, E, op. cit., pg. 15 Focus Group 1, conducted on 26/05/07, 8 teenage participants

18 Examples of Central Material Cross – cultural Content Sample 2
The Banksy piece is placed upon a heritage listed building, which the authorities have encased in Perspex to protect it from vandalism. I see an ironical acceptance of street art by the City of Melbourne Council in their attempts to integrate what was once an antagonistic, rebellious form of art into mainstream Melbourne culture. I have not seen this acceptance in Sydney, suggesting a differentiation between the cultures. Not too long ago, a Banksy work in Sydney was painted over. I travelled to Melbourne to gain first hand experience of street art culture and visited to work discussed above. While Melbourne’s laneways are ‘refurbished’ almost nightly, this simple piece has endured the test of time. Yet Sydney’s uncommissioned street art must withstand a constant barrage of public complaints and media attention. Would Sydney have such a problem if graffiti was celebrated as it is in Melbourne? Student selected location as their cross-cultural component. Great efforts were made to genuinely compare the two locations. Differences between the locations are investigated communicated effectively.

19 Examples of Central Material Cross – cultural Content Sample 3
My experiences of Ghanaian culture are quite limited but I am roughly aware of the ceremonies and significance of religious events and traditions. Growing up in a bi-racial family has certainly had an impact on who I am as a person. I never recognise only one of my heritages because I think it contradicts my identity. However, it affects my physical self more than my internal self, and this is reflected in the bi-racial interviews I carried out for my PIP. In keeping with my cross-cultural comparison of Ghanaians and Australians, I interviewed Juluka and Savuka who have been in Sydney for 12 months now. “Your values would be so different, because they are not what you have grown up with. The two nations of Australia and Ghana are not opposites but they do clash in certain areas. Ghana is getting a lot of technology now but hopefully the traditional culture will be kept alive for a long time.” The results of the interviews led me to believe that had I grown up in Ghana, I really would be a different person. Reflection of experiences with one culture are outlined. Interviews are conducted in the spirit of the cross-cultural component. Cross-cultural component of ethnicity is clearly identified in the interview quote. Cross-cultural comparison is emphasised and conclusion is drawn.


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