Presentation on theme: "1 5 th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPEN ACCESS BAGAMOYO, TANZANIA 14-16 NOVEMBER 2007 ICT FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT Theophilus E. Mlaki Director of Information."— Presentation transcript:
1 5 th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPEN ACCESS BAGAMOYO, TANZANIA 14-16 NOVEMBER 2007 ICT FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT Theophilus E. Mlaki Director of Information and Documentation Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology TMlaki@costech.or.tz
2 CONTENTS 1.0INTRODUCTION AND PHILOSOPHY 2.0KNOWLEDGE 3.0 ICT AS TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE ACCESS 4.0A TECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION 5.0DIGITAL DIVIDE 6.0NARROW THE DIVIDE - KNOWLEDGE ACCESS FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES 7.0CONCLUSION
3 1.0INTRODUCTION AND PHILOSOPHY Tanzania – a rich country where poor people live Maendeleo ni ya Watu siyo ya vitu (Julius Nyerere) The concept of human development has become the leading alternative to the view of development equated exclusively with economic growth. Human development focuses on people (UNDP). Creating, accessing, utilizing and sharing information and knowledge is today the most powerful tool to enable individuals, communities and peoples to achieve their full potential.
4 Human development implies that peoples capabilities are enhanced and their lives enriched. It is a process of enlarging peoples choices, which is achieved by expanding human capabilities and functioning
6 Half a hectare of land and one year of labour were required to feed one person in 1900; whereas that same half-hectare now feeds 10 persons on the basis of just one and a half days of labour. Agricultural Society Industrial Society Knowledge Societies Machines to multiply muscle power Knowledge to multiply brain power 2.2 Social transformations
8 3.0ICT AS TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE ACCESS Major advances towards convergence of computer, broadcasting and telecommunication technologies is now referred as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT are used to facilitate the processing, transmission and management of information and knowledge. As an intermediate good or product, the value of information and knowledge in use varies dramatically depending upon the context. It would seem logical to conclude that better access to a resource as basic as information and knowledge would greatly improve standards of living of the people. However it is very difficult to provide solid empirical evidence to support this conclusion.
9 ICT play a prominent role in the broader conception of poverty. They offer new channels for the diffusion of knowledge and create physical and virtual spaces for social communication thus empowering people. All sectors and areas related to human activity and development (education, health, agriculture, governance, environment etc.) benefit a lot in the use and application of ICT.
11 5.0 DIGITAL DIVIDE Access to ICTs grows steadily, but digital divide persists. Proportion of world population with telephone subscriptions, PCs and internet connections, 1990- 2004 (Percentage) Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2006
12 5.1 The divide Knowledge Divide or Digital Divide Access to knowledge Prosperity Globalization Inclusion Limited access to knowledge Poverty Marginalization Exclusion
13 5.2 New Developments Number of people having access to communication and information tools constantly growing Web 2.0 reality in many parts of the world –Highly decentralized structures –Fosters creativity and productivity –Individual content creation Increasingly strong role of citizens media Emergence of multi platform delivery systems a) New forms of living together
14 Multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia (Wikipedia) New forms of social networking (Blogs, MySpace, FaceBook, YouTube, Second Life……) New phenomena foster participation, democracy and transparency But Fundamental freedoms increasingly threatened New security issues New collective spaces b) New collective spaces
15 6.0NARROW THE DIVIDE - KNOWLEDGE ACCESS FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES To transform rural communities in Africa we must ensure that knowledge reaches the remote villages. Availability of ICT is making this possible despite numerous challenges. More ICT projects are now being sent to rural areas to narrow the digital divide. Telecenters now act as knowledge access points for rural communities.
17 6.1Sengerema Community Telecentre Supported by COSTECH, TTCL, TCRA, Unesco, ITU, IDRC and Sengerema Community. Pilot Project from 2001 – 2004; More than 3000 people ICT trained of which 40% are women; Full Community participation Women managed Community Radio Local content (www.sengerema..or.tz) and Local Video producedwww.sengerema..or.tz Local Internet Service Provider for the area and District ICT base.
18 -Self Financing - US$ 50,000 per year. -Researching on District Television, District Telephony, and District Knowledge Center. -Every District a Telecentre
19 6.2 Serengeti And Wami Pilot Projects Supported by SIDA Population (2002- census) Mara=1,369,000 –Bunda=260,000 –Serengeti=177,000 Coast = 900,000 –Bmoyo=230,000
20 6.2.1 Objectives To design an approach to ICT-based rural development in Tanzania to be the basis for a development program To identify end-users needs and ability to pay for their services To identify and test different business models for sustainability To propose and test methods that can be scaled up on a national level
21 6.2.2 Expected results Improved Service delivery –District offices –Schools –Health institutions Existence of broadband pilot sites A proposal for national broadband connectivity plan
22 6.2.3 Approach Initial focus of the project : (a)Service sectors Promote ICT applications in Healthcare, Education, local administration and SMEs (b)Infrastructure Use of existing infrastructures (wired and wireless) (c)Cooperation Seeking cooperation with partners already working with healthcare, school, local government administration and small businesses.
6.2.4 Basic enabling assumptions Open Regulatory Environment allowing local entrepreneurs to build and operate Open Markets Fiber regarded as essential resources available for all, like roads... National ICT Policies and implementation plans for basic public services Entrepreneurs will come out of the woods if the opportunities exist
24 6.2.5 Milestones Serengeti –Backbone is already connected –One health center (Nata) and a district hospital (Mugumu) are connected –District offices and 2 secondary schools to be connected soon –Local awareness workshops conducted Wami – Backbone is already connected –3 health centers, 2 secondary school and 3 offices connected –Local awareness workshops conducted
Huge interest among users Technically feasable Capacity building of human resources –ICT-based business development –ICT Awareness Trainings –Systems administration –Entrepreneurship Integrating with government initiatives
27 6.2.6 Initial Service Offered File transfer and sharing Emails Tele/Video conference Voice Telemedicine (All the above)
28 6.2.7 Challenges Getting agreement with infrastructure owners Government involvement Strong Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP) Availability and reliability of power supply Rural –Low purchasing power –Low density –Low Computer literacy Moving from Digital Immigrants to Digital Citizens
29 7.0CONCLUSION In the years to come, the difference will not be rich and poor nations, but rather nations with high or low levels of knowledge (Smartest Nations). In the continent of Africa, our focus should be to make people more knowledgeable through the use of ICT. Innovation and change is necessary Do not go where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail – (Ralph Waldo Emerson) Society participation and involvement absolutely essential