Presentation on theme: "Preparatory work on the use of remote sensing techniques for the detection and monitoring of GHG emissions from the Scottish land use sector P.S. Monks."— Presentation transcript:
Preparatory work on the use of remote sensing techniques for the detection and monitoring of GHG emissions from the Scottish land use sector P.S. Monks H. Boesch G. Cappelluti Edinburgh, 01/09/2008
Main objective To develop a method for generating atmospheric GHG fields for the UK/Scotland region from emissions of the land sector and to assess the capabilities of existing and future satellite instruments to monitor carbon fluxes owing to land-use change.
Specific objectives 1.To combine ECOSSE soil model, JULES vegetation model and other CO 2 flux datasets with the Lagrangian transport model NAME to generate CO 2 distributions over UK/Scotland. 2.To model CO 2 fields over the UK/Scotland region for several weeks during summer/autumn for the years 2006 and 2007. 3.To retrieve atmospheric CO 2 for the UK/Scotland region from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT for the same time period including detailed assessment of the uncertainties. 4.To assess the capabilities of SCIAMACHY for observing carbon fluxes released from the soil. 5.To simulate CO 2 fields for the UK/Scotland region using future land-use change scenarios. 6.To assess the capabilities of future satellite instruments (OCO/GOSAT) to observe and monitor carbon fluxes due to land-use change.
Workpackages WP1: Integration of soil and vegetation models into atmospheric transport model WP2: Space-based CO 2 data WP3: Generation of spatio-temporal patterns of CO 2 for different land-use scenarios
WP1 - Integration of soil and vegetation models into atmospheric transport model
WP1 (soil + vegetation + transport) Output: Model-generated CO 2 distributions over Scotland. Fulfilments: Specific objectives 1 and 2. NAME transport model + Met Office meteorological data + CO 2 flux datasets = CO 2 distribution over Scotland
NAME dispersion model A number of particles is released from a start point. The individual particles are followed for a set time period or until they leave a target region The new location at each time step is based on the wind fields. Can be run forward or backward with time. Can be coupled with inversion scheme for surface fluxes.
NAME setup Backward runs from Scotland/UK to retrieve the residence time per grid box. Spatial resolution: currently 1º × 1º grid for several altitudes. Temporal resolution: currently 15 min time steps. Computational requirements: 0.5 hours per case. Data requirements: Met Office meteorological data.
NAME new version Hourly residence times → to extend the footprint sequence of CO 2 exchange. 50% 33% 17% Trajectory origins and their statistical importance → to work out a weighted average of the CO 2 concentration over the grid. Meeting with Met Office in Leicester on 30 July 2008:
Flux models Model predictions of atmospheric CO 2 mole fractions Atmospheric CO 2 mole fractions of air samples from surface, towers, aircraft Set of sources and sinks that minimises the difference Carbon Tracker Modules representing atmospheric transport, air-sea exchange, photosynthesis and respiration by the terrestrial biosphere, CO 2 release to the atmosphere by fires and combustion of fossil fuels. ECOSSE Predicts the impacts of changes in land use and climate change on greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils. CO 2 flux from organic soils in different land use scenarios. JULES Represents the land surface in meteorological and climate models. CO 2 flux from any mixture of 9 surface types: broadleaf trees, needleleaf trees, temperate grass, tropical grass, shrubs, urban, inland water, bare soil and ice.
Flux datasets Carbon Tracker: biosphere, sea, fossil fuel, fire and overall JULES: vegetation (Joerg Kaduk, Geography, Leicester) ECOSSE: soil (Jo Smith, Aberdeen) NAEI: anthropogenic emissions JULES Gross Primary Production (GPP): rate at which an ecosystem produces, captures and stores chemical energy as biomass. Average over 5 years: 1999-2003. Units: kgC/m 2 /s.
CO 2 distribution Flux distribution over transport domain Residence times from transport model ΔCO 2 over target area + Concentration distribution over transport domain Trajectory origins & statistical importance from transport model initial CO 2 over target area +
CO 2 moles transported into the release area Residence times every 3h. Each time slot: residence time × flux = CO 2 moles ending up into the release domain. Currently only 5 time slots: 0-3h, 3-6h, 6-9h, 9-12h, 12h-10d. Last time slot: average overall flux in 12h-10d.
ΔCO 2 over target area CO 2 mole fractions ending up into the release domain. These concentrations describe the overall CO 2 collected by the air from the Earth's surface through its way to the release areas.
CO 2 over target area absolute CO 2 concentration of the release area + exchanged CO 2 concentration = data comparable with those from satellite
Work plan of WP1 1.Integration of NAME new version into Leicester algorithm. 2.ECOSSE CO 2 fluxes about current land use scenarios (2003-2005, 3 hourly, 1 km × 1 km, 30W-20E / 25N-85N). Data ready at the end of September 2008. 3.JULES CO 2 fluxes about current land use scenarios (1999-2006, 3 hourly, 30W-20E / 25N-85N). Data ready at the end of September 2008. Meeting with Joerg Kaduk at the end of September 2008. 4.Integration of JULES into ECOSSE by the end of the Project? 5.NAEI CO 2 fluxes. 6.Model validation through air samples taken across Scotland, possibly at different altitudes. 7.Possibility of using HadCM3 instead of NAME. 8.Possibility of analysing methane too, especially from paddy fields. 9.Also N 2 O may be considered, but not enough variability can be seen. 10.The role of permafrost might be considered.
WP2 (Space-based CO 2 data) Output: Retrieval of atmospheric CO 2 distributions for the UK/Scotland region from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT with assessment of the uncertainties and SCIAMACHY capabilities for observing carbon fluxes released from the soil. Fulfilments: Specific objectives 3 and 4.
Work plan of WP2 1.CO 2 distributions from SCIAMACHY will be compared with patterns and magnitude of the CO 2 distribution retrieved by the algorithm. 2.Evaluation of whether current patterns of soil emissions can be picked up by satellites. 3.NDVI maps from NOAA AVHRR can be used to evaluate patterns and magnitude of the CO 2 fluxes provided by ECOSSE and JULES. 4.Possibility of modifying SCIAMACHY cloud filtering algorithm by making its cloud threshold more flexible, in order to increase the number of soundings over the region of interest. 5.Possibility of modifying SCIAMACHY CO 2 retrieval algorithm by integrating the O 2 normalisation, which is used by OCO, in order to better assess the potentialities of OCO.
WP3 - Generation of spatio-temporal patterns of CO 2 for different land-use scenarios
WP3 (future land-use scenarios) Output: Simulations of CO 2 fields for future land-use change scenarios of the UK/Scotland region and assessment of the OCO/GOSAT capabilities to observe and monitor carbon fluxes due to land-use change. Fulfilments: Specific objectives 5 and 6.
Work plan of WP3 ECOSSE CO 2 fluxes about future land use scenarios. Initial land use change scenarios: 1.moorland to forestry, 2.forestry to moorland. Ultimate scenarios: IPCC A1, A2, B1, B2. Data ready at the end of September 2008. These scenarios will be compared with the abilities of the future satellite missions to assess 1.how large is a flux needed to be quantified? 2.how soon can we expect to detect the predicted changes? 3.the potential of satellites to monitor CO 2 fluxes for land use and climate change.
Project work plan Up-to-date GANTT chart Initial GANTT chart