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1 An Ecological System Approach to Expanding the Chinese Language Field in the US: Lessons Learned and Future Directions 12 th NCOLCTL Conference & 13.

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Presentation on theme: "1 An Ecological System Approach to Expanding the Chinese Language Field in the US: Lessons Learned and Future Directions 12 th NCOLCTL Conference & 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 An Ecological System Approach to Expanding the Chinese Language Field in the US: Lessons Learned and Future Directions 12 th NCOLCTL Conference & 13 th ALTA Conference Shuhan C. Wang, Ph.D. Executive Director Chinese Language Initiatives Asia Society April 25, 2009 Washington, D. C.

2 2 1. An ecological language education system framework 2. The macro environment of the Chinese language field in the US: Pre-2004 3. The growth of the Chinese language field: Post-2004 4. Accomplishments 5. Future directions: Needs and opportunities OVERVIEW

3 1. An ecological system framework for a non-dominant language Macro and micro environment Growth/eradication of the target language in the host environment: Infrastructure Effects of positive/negative efforts

4 Some Factors in the Macro Environment Economic and political relations between the home and host countries Public attitude towards that language and people who use it Legislative efforts Economic context of the host environment National security concerns Funding support Translation into educational programs

5 Some Factors in the Micro Environment: for an immigrant group Who are they? How educated are they? What do they look like, including skin color? What language do they speak? What are their religions and cultural practices? In what condition did they came? For what purpose? In what number did they come? When did they come? How long have they been here? Where do they live? Are they socially integrated or isolated? To whom do they pledge allegiance?

6 The Architecture of the Language Field (Brecht & Walton, 1994) Government Home government Private providers Heritage communities Formal educational system

7 Government Home Government Private Providers Online Multimedia NGOs Formal education system Learners Heritage Communities A System View of the Language Field (Wang 2009)

8 Educational System: K-16 Articulation Institutions of Higher Education Community Colleges- Undergraduate Graduate Public K-12 schools, including charter & vocational schools Private/parochial/ religious schools Non-school time Heritage Communities

9 Interface of Different Sub-Systems Language Planning FWK Language Ecological Perspective Points of Discussion Status PlanningLanguage EnvironmentStatus of the Language: (1) English Language Learner education; (2) HL education; & (3) WL/FL education Corpus PlanningLanguage Evolution in the host environment Teaching & learning the TL as a (1) HL & (2) WL/FL Acquisition Planning Language Effects: Endangerment, Counter- Endangerment, or Language Spread Strategies to promote the TL as a (1) HL & (2) WL/FL

10 Sociological Codes of Languages in the US: Educational Policies and Practices in the K-12 Context Heritage Language English Speakers NCLB English Only Foreign/ World Language Education English Plus English Literacy Policy Home Language

11 Infrascture of a Learner-Centered Language Field Teachers: Teacher Preparation Capacity Quantity/Numbers and Quality/Effectiveness K-12 public schools: Certification Requirements Curriculum Instructional planning and strategies Materials Assessment & evaluation Learner outcomes Program evaluation Research The role of technology Program establishment and sustainability

12 2. The macro environment of the Chinese Language Field Pre-2004 The Chinese Case

13 Historical Major Efforts in Spreading Chinese in US Secondary Schools 1. 1. The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) (1958) 2. 2. Carnegie Initiatives (1960s-1980s) 3. 3. Geraldine Dodge Initiatives (1980s-2000) 4. 4. FLAP Grants (enacted 1988 & 1990)

14 Status of Chinese as a Foreign/World Language: Pre-2004 Perceived to be a difficult language Polarized views about US-China-Taiwan relationships Traditionally for elite or college-bound students Intellectual & humanistic pursuits Mental discipline Linguistic benefits National security International economic competitiveness (e.g., Brecht & Ingold, 2002; Brecht & Walton,1994; Gardner, et al. 1983; Lambert, 1986; Lantolf & Sunderman, 2001)

15 Market Economic Status of Chinese: If Chinese Were Stores Home Language: No market value (in schools) Heritage Language: Neighborhood mom and pop shops Foreign Language: --Prior to 2000: Neiman Marcusonly for the elites --After 2004/05: Costcoan upscale wholesaler (Adapted from H. Tonkins, personal communication, 2000)

16 Group TypeChinatown Chinese Schools National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) The Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) When19 th CenturyEarly 1970sEarly 1990s Family Origin Southern China; After 1976, Ethnic Chinese from Southeast Asia Taiwan & Hong Kong. After late 90s: adoptive and interracial families People s Republic of China, adoptive families Language Taught Cantonese, Taishanese, Hakka Mandarin, a few teach Taiwanese (a Min Dialect) Mandarin Types of Chinese Heritage Language Schools

17 17 Pre-2004: Total Student Enrollment in Chinese HEd7-12HL 34,153 (MLA, 2002) 24,000 (ACTFL, 2000) 100,000 (NCACLS, 2005) 60,000 (CSAUS, 2005) 160,000Total: 238,000 roughly

18 3. The growth of the Chinese language field Post-2004

19

20 Chinese Language in the Public Discourse: 2000-Present National security Economic competitiveness A ticket to the China Express A player in the global economy and global issues Mandarin as a global phenomenon Mixed feelings from other world languages

21 Post 2004: Major Initiatives in Chinese Private Providers: Private Providers: e.g., Berlitz, Rosetta Stone Online Online Multi-Media Multi-Media

22 22 Post 2004: Major Initiatives in Chinese Government: -- Federal Government (NSLI) -- State and Municipal Efforts Chinese Government NGOs: -- College Board -- Asia Society

23 23 Chinese Flagship Programs 1. Brigham Young University 2. The University of Mississippi 3. Ohio State University 4. The University of Oregon and Portland Public School District K-16 Chinese Flagship 1. Arizona State University 2. Indiana University-Bloomington 3. University of Rhode Island 4. Western Kentucky University Diffusion of Innovation Grants http://www.thelanguageflagship.org/funding_institutions.html

24 24 Foreign Language Assistance Program (FLAP): Chinese Programs Programs200620072008 Number 48 LEAs 3 SEAs 225 Funding amount $9.66 millions $3.65 millions 0.79 millions Total: $14.1 millions

25 25 STARTALK Project: Chinese Student and Teacher Programs STARTALK Project: Chinese Student and Teacher Programs 20072008 27 student programs 18 teacher programs 37 student programs 18 teacher programs 744 students 1,884 students 355 teachers 787 teachers Administered by the National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) at the University of Maryland http://www.startalk@umd.eduhttp://www.startalk@umd.edu or Startalk@umd.edu Startalk@umd.edu http://www.startalk@umd.eduStartalk@umd.edu

26 26 Sample Municipal Chinese Initiatives Chicago: in 2008-09, 12,000 students learn Mandarin Los Angeles: Language Resolution (October 2008) New York Chinese Task Force (Asia Society and China Institute, May 2009)

27 27 Sample State Initiatives Connecticut Connecticut Indiana Indiana Kansas Kansas Minnesota Minnesota New Jersey New Jersey North Carolina North Carolina Ohio Ohio Oklahoma Oklahoma Utah Utah Wisconsin Wisconsin And more… And more…

28 K-12 Virtual Chinese Language Programs in the US (Asia Society, April 2009) 16 states currently have Distance Learning/Web-Based Programs for Chinese Language 15 states offer Chinese I 11 states offer Chinese II (12 in 2010) 3 states offer Chinese III (5 in 2010) 3 states are expected to provide Chinese IV in 2010 3 states offer AP Level (8 in 2010) 2 states are in the process of implementing Distance Learning/Web-Based programs Data Source: NCSSFL online survey

29 29 Chinese Government Hanban/Confucius Institute Headquarters Worldwide Promotion of Chinese as a WL Chinese Bridge Delegation Chinese Bridge Delegation Visiting Teacher programs Visiting Teacher programs Confucius Institutes: 56 in the U. S., March 09 Confucius Institutes: 56 in the U. S., March 09 http://english.hanban.edu.cn

30 30 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU): States and Cities with China 12 States Connecticut Connecticut Delaware Delaware Indiana Indiana Kansas Kansas Kentucky Kentucky Maine Maine North Carolina North Carolina Ohio Ohio Oklahoma Oklahoma South Carolina South Carolina Utah Utah Wisconsin Wisconsin 2 Cities Chicago Los Angeles

31 31 The College Board In collaboration with Hanban AP Course and Exam, beginning in 2007 AP Course and Exam, beginning in 2007 Chinese Bridge Delegation: 1,200 educators Chinese Bridge Delegation: 1,200 educators Visiting Teacher Programs: 200 teachers in 32 states at 130 institutions Visiting Teacher Programs: 200 teachers in 32 states at 130 institutions Chinese Cultural Seminars Chinese Cultural Seminars Student Summer in China Program Student Summer in China Program Data Source: The college Board internal study, April 2008

32 32 Asia Society Chinese Language Initiatives http://asiasociety.org

33 33 A Chinese Handbook and DVD

34 34 http://AskAsia.org/Chinese http://AskAsia.org/Chinese http://internationaled.org http://internationaled.org http://AskAsia.org/Chinesehttp://internationaled.org

35 35 National Chinese Language Conference: April 30-May 2, 2009, Chicago Making Connections, Building Partnerships! Teachers, administrators, school board members, policy makers, business, and international leaders Teachers, administrators, school board members, policy makers, business, and international leaders Connecting K-12 and higher education Connecting K-12 and higher education Creating partnerships between U.S. and Chinese educators, schools, and universities Creating partnerships between U.S. and Chinese educators, schools, and universities Visit classes in the Chicago Public Schools Visit classes in the Chicago Public Schools

36 36 A WORLD LANGUAGE TEACHER WHITE PAPER (Summer 2009) A national project co-sponsored by The National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) at the University of Maryland The National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) at the University of Maryland Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Asia Society Asia Society

37 37 4. Effects of Efforts

38 38 Growth of Chinese Language Programs in K-12 Schools Data Source: The College Board internal study, April 2008 200% increase

39 39 Languages Taught in Elementary Schools (CAL, 1997 & 2008) LSPFR*SPSpSpLA ** CH GE AS L HBITJPARRU 977927830.3522230.11 0888117632212110.2 (http://cal.org/flsurvey) * SP SP SP: Spanish for Speakers of Spanish ** Chinese: + 900% increase

40 40 Languages Taught in Secondary Schools (CAL, 1997 & 2008) LSPFR GEGEGEGELASPSpSp *C H AS L ITJPHE ARARARAR GREGREGREGRE RURURURU 9793642420912370.2013 0893461413844431110.3 (http://cal.org/flsurvey) * Chinese: + 300%

41 41 Enrollments in Higher Education Language Courses: Fall 1998, 2002, and 2006 19982002 % Change 1998-2002 2006 % Change 2002-06 Spanish656,590746,26713.7822,98510.3 French199,064201,9791.5206,4262.2 German89,02091,1002.394,2643.5 ASL11,42060,781432.278,82929.7 Italian49,29763,89929.678,36822.6 Japanese43,14152,23821.166,60527.5 Chinese28,45634,15320.051,58251.0 Latin26,14529,84114.132,1917.9 Russia23,79123,9210.524,8453.9 Arabic5,50510,58492.323,974126.5 Source: Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2006. MLA, accessible at http://www.mla.org/enroll_survey06_fin.http://www.mla.org/enroll_survey06_fin

42 2009: Heritage Language Programs Type of System SchoolsStudentsEst. Teachers NCACLS (Taiwan) 800+100,0003,000 CSAUS (PRC) 40580,0003,000 Personal Communications with Presidents of both association, March 2009

43 43 National Accomplishments of the Chinese Field Launched federal, state, local initiatives Increased student enrollment in all levels Increased K-12 school programs Began to develop curricula, materials, and assessment

44 5. Future Direction Needs, Trends, and Strategies

45 45 Needs and Challenges 1. Limited teacher education and supply capacity 2. Most programs are under 3 years old 3. Almost no early language learning infrastructure 4. Need to tap into the resources in the heritage language communities 5. Lack of K-16 articulation leading to the attainment of high language proficiencypockets of excellence 6. Need to develop virtual programs for students and teacher training: opportunity and access to learn 7. Lack of national coordination of initiatives and efforts

46 46 Trends Indicating Demands for World Language Education in the US Awareness of the need for global competence for this interconnected world, which includes the study of languages and cultures Awareness of the need for global competence for this interconnected world, which includes the study of languages and cultures Immersion and early language learning programs Immersion and early language learning programs WL as an exit or high school graduation requirement WL as an exit or high school graduation requirement K-16 articulation aligned with Standards and real life use K-16 articulation aligned with Standards and real life use

47 Lessons Learned 1. 1. Take a system approach, connect all sectors 2. 2. Enhance teacher development capacity 3. 3. Take an incubator approach to build programs and infrastructures; simultaneously develop and field test curricula, materials, assessment, and research 4. 4. Build high human capital: identify and develop teams of specialists who know the language, understand cultures, SLA, pedagogy, curriculum, material, assessment, research, and K-16 contexts and heritage communities in the US

48 Government Home Government Private Providers Online Multimedia NGOs Formal education system Learners Heritage Communities A System Approach: 1.Think about supply, demand, & infrastructure 2.Create flywheels that convert energy into synergy (Wang, 2007)

49 Questions for Other Language Fields How does your language learning system look like? What is the macro language environment like? What is in place for the micro language learning and teaching environment? What kind of efforts are in place? How has the language field evolved? What resources can be leveraged? What gaps can be bridged or barriers be removed?

50 50 Big Questions for the US as a Nation How do we advocate for US students development of global competence, which includes linguistic and cultural capital? How do we advocate for US students development of global competence, which includes linguistic and cultural capital? How do we expand our schools offering of world languages? How do we expand our schools offering of world languages? What are our goals for language education for the global age? What are our goals 5 years and 10 or 20 years from now? What are our goals for language education for the global age? What are our goals 5 years and 10 or 20 years from now?

51 Thank you Shuhan C. Wang, Ph.D. shuhanw@asiasoc.org http://www.asiasociety.org/education


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