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By Tammie Tran UC Irvine 20 th Annual COTSEAL/SEASSI Conference – 7/2010 University of Wisconsin - Madison The Vietnamese Address System: The Beauty or.

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Presentation on theme: "By Tammie Tran UC Irvine 20 th Annual COTSEAL/SEASSI Conference – 7/2010 University of Wisconsin - Madison The Vietnamese Address System: The Beauty or."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Tammie Tran UC Irvine 20 th Annual COTSEAL/SEASSI Conference – 7/2010 University of Wisconsin - Madison The Vietnamese Address System: The Beauty or the Inconvenience?

2 Vietnamese Address Forms - Introduction Types of Address Forms Grammatical Properties of Address Forms Factors Determining the Choice of Address Forms Geographical Variation and Changes Address Forms – the Beauty Address Forms – the Inconvenience Pedagogical Implications Outline

3 The word forms used to refer to the addressees, the speaker, and third parties in social interaction (Cooke, 1968; Luong, 1990) The Viet Address System - Introduction Addresser - First person singular and plural forms Addressee - Second person singular and plural forms Third parties - Third person singular and plural forms

4 Personal pronouns Tôi (I)Chúng tôi (we) Bn (you)Các bn (you) Anh y, ch y, nóH, chúng nó (he/she/it)(they) Proper nouns Hoa, Lan --- Kinship terms Ông (grandfather), bà (grandmother), anh/em (older/younger brother), -- Used both for kin- and non-kin relationships Types of Address Forms

5 Social status terms (occupational titles) Bác sĩ Đc/Nguyn (Doctor) Giáo sư Hòa/Phm (Professor) Other nouns of human referents Bác bán ph (The person who sells noodle), anh đ xăng (gas-station attendant), ch bán cơm (rice saleswoman) Applicable as addresses(?) Ch bán cơm ơi(?) More common for a third person reference Types of Address Forms (2)

6 Intralexical declension Gender Anh (older brother; male young person) Ch (older sister; female young person) Number Nó (it)H (they) In grammatical cases Ø Bác y là --(Uncle/he is--) Xe ca bác y --(his car--) -- gp bác y (--met him) -- tng cho bác y --(--gave -- to him) Grammatical Properties

7 Interlexical declension In grammatical cases Ø Bác y/bà y/h là k sư. (He/she/they is/are (an) engineer(s)) Xe ca bác y/bà y/h (là) màu đ. (His/her/their car(s) is/are red) Tôi gp bác y/bà y/h hôm qua. (I met him/her/them yesterday) Tôi tng mt quyn sách cho bác y/bà y/h. (I gave a book to him/her/them) Grammatical Properties (2)

8 Based on Age ---> kinships To an old person – bác/chú (uncle) To a kid – em (younger person), cháu (niece/nephew/grandchild) Social status B h (Majesty) Bác sĩ (doctor); giáo sư (professor) Formality Formal: ông, bà (gentleman, lady) Informal: anh, em (older/younger person) --- The choice of Address Terms

9 Based on Gender Anh (older brother; older male person) Ch (older sister; older female person) Relationships Blood – ba, m (dad, mom) con Intimate – ch (older sister/elder person/senior/close relationships) em (younger sister/person/close relationships) Distant – anh tôi (you – I (formal)) The choice of address terms (2)

10 Based on Attitudes (respectful or arrogant) Ông, anh (older male person); Mày (a second singular person form) Feelings A mother – a child: m con -> tôi anh --- Mother: Đng hi ý kin m/tôi na. Con/Anh mun làm gì thì làm. (Dont ask for my opinion any more. Do whatever you want.) The choice of address terms (3)

11 Geographical variation Northern Vietnam – M (mother) Central Vietnam – M (mother) South Vietnam – Má (mother) Urban – m – m, má (mother) Rural – mm, m, u, bu (mother) Historical change Tía, bá, thy, cu, cha,--ba, b( father) U -- bu, bm, m,--- m (mother) Variation

12 Vietnamese culture The expression of respect Appropriate terms for older/younger people Expression of hierarchy Social status B h (majesty), hoàng hu (queen)- Individuals personality Polite/elegant/gentle--- Anh/em/ông/tui (couple) The Beauty

13 Vietnamese culture Educational qualities Kin relationships Anh - em (you – I) (siblings) Mày - tau (you - I) (siblings) Non-kin relationships Chú - cháu (you – I) (old/young people) Tau – mày (you – I) (old/young people); Thng/con(male/female) Expression of feelings Affection/love Em yêu/anh yêu (honey) Anh – em --- tôi – anh --- tau/mày (siblings) The Beauty (2)

14 Sociopragmatic meanings of address forms (Belz & Kinginger, 2002) The choice of address terms must be based on various sociopragmatic factors Each of the factors/relationships results sin different terms (e.g.maternal/paternal) Meaning loss in translation (Nida, 1964) - Tôi đâu đp như cô ta/ngưi ta đ cho anh quan tâm (I am not as beautiful as her/other people to get your attention) - Hôm qua không ti làm tôi/em/ngưi ta ch mãi. (I waited for you for a long time but you didnt come) The Inconvenience

15 Gender relations (Salami, 2004) - Thy/cô – male /female teacher - Cô/chú – uncle/aunt Confusion and embarrassment about peoples age (Afful, 2007) Guessing other peoples age -> insulting them Shift of address terms due to attitude, feelings (Akindele, 2008) - M con/name/mày (mom-child) - Tôi anh (mom-son) Consideration of age/relationships - Anh/ch (the elders) (junior to senior)(?) The Inconvenience (2)

16 Different meanings in a single address form T/V distinction You I (personal pronouns, proper names, kinship terms, status terms--) A personal pronoun –> 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd person -> interlingual code-switching in both young and old adults (Ho-Tu, 1997) The Inconvenience (3)

17 T/V distinction Vietnamese English Different meaningsPersonal prons Personal pronouns you I - Ch nht con đi hc Không? (Do you go to school on Sunday?) - D không, con không đi hc. (No, I dont --) Ch - (older female) 1 st, 2 nd, & 3 rd person Ch đi v VN. (I/you/she goes to VN) A Comparative Analysis

18 Teaching address system in context but not in isolation (Weaver, 1996) Authentic materials Specific relationships Pedagogical Implications Telecollaboration (Belz, 2002)–> internet communication tools( , synchronous chat)

19 Grammar dimensions ( Larsen- Freeman,1995) Pedagogical Implications (2) Form: Memory tasks; texts that instantiate the forms of addresses; contextualized examples Meaning: Recognition practice (when, where, why to use some specific forms) Use: Attention to forms that occur at high density; situational practices; role-plays

20 An example of form & meaning

21 Chào bn (Hello) Ông Ông là -- Ông thích Bà Bà là -- Bà thích Thank You Questions & Comments Use: Exercises Activities

22 Major references Belz, J. & Kinginger, C. (2002). The Cross-linguistic Development of Address Form Use in Telecollaborative Language Learning: Two Case Studies. Canadian Modern Language Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, , University of Toronto Press. Cooke, J. (1968). The Pronominal Reference in Thai, Burmese, and Vietnamese, Berkley: University of California Press. Ho-Tu, D. (1997). Vietnamese-English Bilinguals in Melbourne: Social Relationships in the Code-Switching of Personal Pronouns - Tuc Ho- Dac. International Journal: Language, Society, and Culture. Larsen-Freeman, D. (1995). On the teaching and learning of grammar: Challenging the myths. In F. Eckman et al. (Eds.), Second language acquisition theory and pedagogy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Luong, H. (1990). Discursive Practices and Linguistic Meanings : the Vietnamese System of Person Reference. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : J. Benjamins Pub. Co. Nida, E.A Toward a Science of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill Weaver, B. (1996). Teaching Grammar in Context. Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc. References

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