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Vittoria International School, Torino Chemistry course Biological molecules and food The chemistry of macromolecules Professor Elena V. Tibaldi.

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Presentation on theme: "Vittoria International School, Torino Chemistry course Biological molecules and food The chemistry of macromolecules Professor Elena V. Tibaldi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vittoria International School, Torino Chemistry course Biological molecules and food The chemistry of macromolecules Professor Elena V. Tibaldi

2 carbohydrates lipids vitamins proteins When we buy food we find a table called nutrition facts what are those names listed?

3 Carbohydrates are the most important molecules for energy production Plants are able to produce glucose through photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O + solar energy Glucose + O 2 Animals need to eat food to get glucose for the cells

4 Muscle cells are plenty of mitochondria they need a lot of energy! Glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Energy is produced in the cells through a process called cell respiration Carbohydrates and energy production

5 Carbohydrates monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose polisaccharides cellulose starch glycogen disaccharides maltose lactose sucrose

6 High levels of glucose in blood danger www.nlm.nih.gov/.../ency/fullsize/18029.jpg Glucose test www.nlm.nih.gov/.../ency/fullsize/19825.jpg Eccess glucose in bloodstream diabetes

7 Lipids functions energy storage hormone precursor structural impermeabilization thermal insulation vitamine precursor mechanical protection types triglycerides cholesterol waxes phospholipids steroids long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen insoluble in water

8 Triglycerides made of glycerol and three fatty acids insoluble in water energy storage and impermeabilization oil if liquid at RT (ie olive oil) and fat is solid at RT (ie butter) myoptumhealth.com

9 Phospholipids Produced in liver Main constituent of cell membrane lipid bilayer Formed by a hydrophilic head (glycerol and phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (fatty acids)

10 Waxes 1) Insoluble in water protection and impermeabilization Bird feathers Upper surface of leaves 3) Bees use them to build the hive 2) Fruit impermeabilization (apples, pear, cherries)

11 Cholesterol www.lowercholesterolldl.com in animal cell membrane vitamin D precursor (bones and teeth) produced by liver

12 High cholesterol levels danger! In liver: gallstone formation medicalimages.allrefer.com In blood: atherosclerotic plaques build up in artery walls hubpages.com

13 Proteins functions immune defense muscle contraction structural transport membrane receptor enzymatic regulatory Chain of aminoacids Found in eggs, meat, fish, milk and derivatives, vegetables and cereals

14 Vitamins In vegetables, fruit, fish, meat, cereals Many different types: vit A (retinol) vit B complex vit C (ascorbic acid) vit D (important for bones and teeth) vit K (produced by bacterial flora) phentermine.bz/tag/natural-vitamins

15 Breakfast is a very important meal During breakfast we need to get at least 20% of daily values Breakfast should be abondant, but easy to digest Cereals, rusks, milk and coffee and fruits should be preferable to butter, croissants and cakes! Have a good and healthy day!


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