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Vittoria International School, Torino

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1 Vittoria International School, Torino
Chemistry course Biological molecules and food The chemistry of macromolecules Professor Elena V. Tibaldi

2 When we buy food we find a table called “nutrition facts” 
what are those names listed? carbohydrates lipids vitamins proteins

3 Carbohydrates are the most important molecules for energy production
Plants are able to produce glucose through photosynthesis CO2 + H2O + solar energy  Glucose + O2 Animals need to eat food to get glucose for the cells

4 Carbohydrates and energy production
Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATP Energy is produced in the cells through a process called cell respiration Muscle cells are plenty of mitochondria  they need a lot of energy!

5 Carbohydrates maltose glucose lactose galactose disaccharides
sucrose monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose polisaccharides cellulose starch glycogen

6 High levels of glucose in blood  danger
Eccess glucose in bloodstream  diabetes Glucose test

7 Lipids long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen insoluble in water
types triglycerides cholesterol waxes phospholipids steroids long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen insoluble in water functions energy storage hormone precursor structural impermeabilization thermal insulation vitamine mechanical protection

8 Triglycerides made of glycerol and three fatty acids
insoluble in water energy storage and impermeabilization Triglycerides oil if liquid at RT (ie olive oil) and fat is solid at RT (ie butter)

9 Phospholipids Formed by a hydrophilic head (glycerol and phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (fatty acids) Produced in liver Main constituent of cell membrane  lipid bilayer

10 Waxes 1) Insoluble in water  protection and impermeabilization
Bird feathers Upper surface of leaves 2) Fruit impermeabilization (apples, pear, cherries) 3) Bees use them to build the hive

11 Cholesterol in animal cell membrane
vitamin D precursor (bones and teeth) produced by liver

12 High cholesterol levels  danger!
In blood: atherosclerotic plaques build up in artery walls In liver: gallstone formation

13 Proteins Chain of aminoacids
Found in eggs, meat, fish, milk and derivatives, vegetables and cereals functions immune defense muscle contraction structural transport membrane receptor enzymatic regulatory

14 Vitamins Many different types: vit A (retinol) vit B complex Many different types: vit A (retinol) vit B complex vit C (ascorbic acid) vit D (important for bones and teeth) vit K (produced by bacterial flora) In vegetables, fruit, fish, meat, cereals

15 Have a good and healthy day!
Breakfast is a very important meal During breakfast we need to get at least 20% of daily values Breakfast should be abondant, but easy to digest Cereals, rusks, milk and coffee and fruits should be preferable to butter, croissants and cakes! Have a good and healthy day!

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