Presentation on theme: "Vittoria International School, Torino"— Presentation transcript:
1 Vittoria International School, Torino Chemistry courseBiological molecules and foodThe chemistry of macromoleculesProfessorElena V. Tibaldi
2 When we buy food we find a table called “nutrition facts” what are those names listed?carbohydrateslipidsvitaminsproteins
3 Carbohydrates are the most important molecules for energy production Plants are able to produce glucose through photosynthesisCO2 + H2O + solar energy Glucose + O2Animals need to eat food to get glucose for the cells
4 Carbohydrates and energy production Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATPEnergy is produced in the cells through a process calledcell respirationMuscle cells are plenty of mitochondria they need a lot of energy!
6 High levels of glucose in blood danger Eccess glucose in bloodstream diabetesGlucose test
7 Lipids long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen insoluble in water typestriglyceridescholesterolwaxesphospholipidssteroidslong chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygeninsoluble in waterfunctionsenergystoragehormoneprecursorstructuralimpermeabilizationthermalinsulationvitaminemechanicalprotection
8 Triglycerides made of glycerol and three fatty acids insoluble in waterenergy storage and impermeabilizationTriglyceridesoil if liquid at RT (ie olive oil) and fat is solid at RT (ie butter)myoptumhealth.com
9 PhospholipidsFormed by a hydrophilic head (glycerol and phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (fatty acids)Produced in liverMain constituent of cell membrane lipid bilayer
10 Waxes 1) Insoluble in water protection and impermeabilization Bird feathersUpper surface of leaves2) Fruit impermeabilization (apples, pear, cherries)3) Bees use them to build the hive
11 Cholesterol in animal cell membrane vitamin D precursor (bones and teeth)produced by liver
12 High cholesterol levels danger! In blood:atherosclerotic plaques build up in artery wallshubpages.comIn liver:gallstone formationmedicalimages.allrefer.com
13 Proteins Chain of aminoacids Found in eggs, meat, fish, milk and derivatives, vegetables and cerealsfunctionsimmunedefensemusclecontractionstructuraltransportmembranereceptorenzymaticregulatory
14 Vitamins Many different types: vit A (retinol) vit B complex phentermine.bz/tag/natural-vitaminsMany different types:vit A (retinol)vit B complexvit C (ascorbic acid)vit D (important for bones and teeth)vit K (produced by bacterial flora)In vegetables, fruit, fish, meat, cereals
15 Have a good and healthy day! Breakfast is a very important mealDuring breakfast we need to get at least 20% of daily valuesBreakfast should be abondant, but easy to digestCereals, rusks, milk and coffee and fruitsshould be preferable tobutter, croissants and cakes!Have a good and healthy day!