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H Liceo Classico “L. Ariosto” Ferrara Chemistry course

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Presentation on theme: "H Liceo Classico “L. Ariosto” Ferrara Chemistry course"— Presentation transcript:

1 H Liceo Classico “L. Ariosto” Ferrara Chemistry course
CHNOPS: the six elements of life Teacher Maria Petresi H

2 The four major types of macromolecules found in living cells
Elements Monomer Polymer Example Carbohydrates C, H, O Simple sugar Polysaccharides Starch Lipids Fatty acids & glycerol Fats, oils, waxes Proteins C, H, N, O, S Amino acids Polypeptides Insulin Nucleic acids C, H, O, P Nucleotides DNA

3 Elements: where? •Organisms: C,H,N,O,P & S … “CHNOPS” •Earth’s crust:
O,Si,Al,Fe … •Universe: H,(He),O,C,(Ne),N,Mg,Si, Fe,S …

4 The setting of CHNOPS in the periodic table of elements

5 Group and period identification of CHNOPS

6 CHNOPS in… Human Homo sapiens’ atomic composition

7 CHNOPS in… Bacterium Escherichia coli’s atomic composition

8 CHNOPS in… Plants Poa pratensis’ atomic composition

9 Carbon •Symbol: C 6 •Group: 4th C •Period: 2nd •Atomic number: 6 12.00
•Atomic mass number: 12 •Valence: 4 •Electrons number: 6

10 What? •Non-metal •It’s solid at room temperature Where? •In all fondamental composts of living things •Atmosphere (CO2) •Earth’s crust Why? •There aren’t living things without carbon

11 Hydrogen •Symbol: H 1 •Group: 1st •Period: 1st H •Atomic number: 1
•Atomic mass number: 1 •Valence: 1 •Electrons number: 1 1 H 1.008

12 What? •Non-metal •It’s gas at room temperature; H2 •An element apart Where? •The most common in the Universe. Why? •In many inorganic compounds (H2O, hydrides, hydroxides and acids) •In organic compounds

13 Nitrogen N 7 14.01 Symbol: N Group: 5th Period:2nd Atomic number: 7
Atomic mass: 14 Valence: 3 Electrons number: 7

14 What? Non-metal It’s gas at room temperature; N2 Where? It’s the most common in the atmosphere In all living organisms In proteins Why? It can form many compounds with oxygen.

15 Oxygen O 8 Symbol: O Group: 6th Period:2nd Atomic number: 8 16.00
Atomic mass: 16 Valence: 2 Electrons number: 8

16 What? Non-metal It’s gas at room temperature; O2 Where? It’s the most common in the Earth’s crust In the atmosphere: 21% In all living organisms (biomolecules) Why? It’s foundamental to all living organisms (cellular respiration, photosynthesis……)

17 Phosphorous P 15 30.97 Symbol: P Group: 5th Period:3rd
Atomic number: 15 Atomic mass: 30 Valence: 5 Electrons number: 15 Valence: 5 Electrons number: 15

18 What? Non-metal It’s solid at room temperature; P4 (white phosphorus) Where? In nature it appears as a calcium phosphate In the skeletons of animals In ATP; in the nucleic acids (PO43-) Why? It forms only single bonds

19 Sulfur S 16 Symbol: S Group: 6th Period:3rd 32.07 Atomic number: 16
Atomic mass: 32 Valence: 2, 4, 6 Electrons number: 16

20 What? Non-metal It’s solid at room temperature; S8 (rhombic sulfur) Where? In nature it’s in volcanic areas In minerals In the proteins Why? It can form 2, 4 or 6 bonds

21 The Lewis configuration

22 4 CHNOPS valence Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur 1 3
Atom V a L e n c 4 1 3 2 5 2,4,6

23 Copyright 2012 © eni S.p.A.


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