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Liceo Classico L. Ariosto Ferrara Chemistry course CHNOPS: the six elements of life Teacher Maria Petresi.

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Presentation on theme: "Liceo Classico L. Ariosto Ferrara Chemistry course CHNOPS: the six elements of life Teacher Maria Petresi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liceo Classico L. Ariosto Ferrara Chemistry course CHNOPS: the six elements of life Teacher Maria Petresi

2 The four major types of macromolecules found in living cells MacromoleculesElementsMonomerPolymerExample CarbohydratesC, H, OSimple sugar PolysaccharidesStarch LipidsC, H, OFatty acids & glycerol LipidsFats, oils, waxes ProteinsC, H, N, O, S Amino acidsPolypeptidesInsulin Nucleic acidsC, H, O, P NucleotidesNucleic acidsDNA

3 Elements: where? Organisms: C,H,N,O,P & S … CHNOPS Earths crust: O,Si,Al,Fe … Universe: H,(He),O,C,(Ne),N,Mg,Si, Fe,S …

4 The setting of CHNOPS in the periodic table of elements

5 Group and period identification of CHNOPS

6 Homo sapiens atomic composition Human CHNOPS in…

7 Escherichia colis atomic composition Bacterium

8 CHNOPS in… Poa pratensis atomic composition Plants

9 Symbol: C Group: 4 th Period: 2 nd Atomic number: 6 Atomic mass number: 12 Valence: 4 Electrons number: 6 Carbon 6 C 12.00

10 What? Non-metal Its solid at room temperature Where? In all fondamental composts of living things Atmosphere (CO 2 ) Earths crust Why? There arent living things without carbon

11 Symbol: H Group: 1 st Period: 1 st Atomic number: 1 Atomic mass number: 1 Valence: 1 Electrons number: 1 Hydrogen 1 H 1.008

12 What? Non-metal Its gas at room temperature; H 2 An element apart Where? The most common in the Universe. Why? In many inorganic compounds (H 2 O, hydrides, hydroxides and acids) In organic compounds

13 Nitrogen 7 N Symbol: N Group: 5 th Period:2 nd Atomic number: 7 Atomic mass: 14 Valence: 3 Electrons number: 7

14 What? Non-metal Its gas at room temperature; N 2 Where? Its the most common in the atmosphere In all living organisms In proteins Why? It can form many compounds with oxygen.

15 Oxygen 8 O Symbol: O Group: 6 th Period:2 nd Atomic number: 8 Atomic mass: 16 Valence: 2 Electrons number: 8

16 What? Non-metal Its gas at room temperature; O 2 Where? Its the most common in the Earths crust In the atmosphere: 21% In all living organisms (biomolecules) Why? Its foundamental to all living organisms (cellular respiration, photosynthesis……)

17 Phosphorous 15 P Valence: 5 Electrons number: 15 Symbol: P Group: 5 th Period:3 rd Atomic number: 15 Atomic mass: 30 Valence: 5 Electrons number: 15

18 What? Non-metal Its solid at room temperature; P 4 (white phosphorus) Where? In nature it appears as a calcium phosphate In the skeletons of animals In ATP; in the nucleic acids (PO 4 3- ) Why? It forms only single bonds

19 Sulfur 16 S Symbol: S Group: 6 th Period:3 rd Atomic number: 16 Atomic mass: 32 Valence: 2, 4, 6 Electrons number: 16

20 What? Non-metal Its solid at room temperature; S 8 (rhombic sulfur) Where? In nature its in volcanic areas In minerals In the proteins Why? It can form 2, 4 or 6 bonds

21 The Lewis configuration

22 CHNOPS valence

23 Copyright 2012 © eni S.p.A.


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