1 H Liceo Classico “L. Ariosto” Ferrara Chemistry course CHNOPS: the six elements of lifeTeacherMaria PetresiH
2 The four major types of macromolecules found in living cells ElementsMonomerPolymerExampleCarbohydratesC, H, OSimple sugarPolysaccharidesStarchLipidsFatty acids & glycerolFats, oils, waxesProteinsC, H, N, O, SAmino acidsPolypeptidesInsulinNucleic acidsC, H, O, PNucleotidesDNA
9 Carbon •Symbol: C 6 •Group: 4th C •Period: 2nd •Atomic number: 6 12.00 •Atomic mass number: 12•Valence: 4•Electrons number: 6
10 What?•Non-metal•It’s solid at room temperatureWhere?•In all fondamental composts of living things•Atmosphere (CO2)•Earth’s crustWhy?•There aren’t living things without carbon
11 Hydrogen •Symbol: H 1 •Group: 1st •Period: 1st H •Atomic number: 1 •Atomic mass number: 1•Valence: 1•Electrons number: 11H1.008
12 What?•Non-metal•It’s gas at room temperature; H2•An element apartWhere?•The most common in the Universe.Why?•In many inorganic compounds (H2O, hydrides, hydroxides and acids)•In organic compounds
13 Nitrogen N 7 14.01 Symbol: N Group: 5th Period:2nd Atomic number: 7 Atomic mass: 14Valence: 3Electrons number: 7
14 What?Non-metalIt’s gas at room temperature; N2Where?It’s the most common in the atmosphereIn all living organismsIn proteinsWhy?It can form many compounds with oxygen.
15 Oxygen O 8 Symbol: O Group: 6th Period:2nd Atomic number: 8 16.00 Atomic mass: 16Valence: 2Electrons number: 8
16 What?Non-metalIt’s gas at room temperature; O2Where?It’s the most common in the Earth’s crustIn the atmosphere: 21%In all living organisms (biomolecules)Why?It’s foundamental to all living organisms (cellular respiration, photosynthesis……)
18 What?Non-metalIt’s solid at room temperature; P4 (white phosphorus)Where?In nature it appears as a calcium phosphateIn the skeletons of animalsIn ATP; in the nucleic acids (PO43-)Why?It forms only single bonds
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