# Colour Lesson aim To review our understanding of refraction and reflection To understanding that white light is made from different colours To understand.

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Colour Lesson aim To review our understanding of refraction and reflection To understanding that white light is made from different colours To understand how coloured filters work and why we see coloured objects as we do.

Learning Outcomes By the end of the lesson pupils should know: that white light can be dispersed to give a range of different colours to use scientific knowledge to suggest reasons for physical phenomena how coloured filters change white light to combine knowledge from different sources to explain how coloured filters work how coloured objects appear in white light and in different colours of light

Recall What is reflection? What is refraction?

Refraction or reflection?

Reflection from a mirror: Incident ray Normal Reflected ray Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Mirror

Reflection : 1. Lateral inversion The way plane mirrors reflect light regularly gives a clear image which is the same size as the object - but what is different about the image ? This is called lateral inversion.

Reflection : 4.Reflecting without mirrors Mirrors are good reflectors but not perfect - they give 2 reflections. We use glass prisms instead of mirrors in good quality binoculars and other instruments.

Reflection : Summary You should now know that : Pale and shiny surfaces are good reflectors, dark and rough surfaces are not. The image in a plane mirror is laterally inverted. The image is the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front. The image in a plane mirror is the same size as the object. angle of incidence =angle of reflection ¡ =r

Refraction in a rectangular block

Revision tip for Refraction : Remember the word: TAGAGA Towards (normal) Air Glass Away (from normal) Glass Air

Refraction : Summary When light bends this is called refraction. Refraction happens because the light changes speed [or velocity]. When light enters a more dense medium [e.g. glass], it bends towards the normal. When light enters a less dense medium [e.g. air], it bends away from the normal. If the incident ray hits a surface at 0º, no refraction occurs.  Remember that the angle of reflection [r] and angle of refraction [r] have the same symbol. In reflection,I=r In refraction,I  r

Lack of colour Imagine you could only see in black and white. What are the possible implications this could have on your life? Would it rule out any careers for you? What dangers could there be? You must give a two minute presentation to the rest of the group on your ideas. Activity

We can split light by shining a ray of bright white light at a prism, as shown above, and move the prism until colours appear. Colour : splitting white light up

Explanation What happens? The white light ray is split into a spectrum of colours. This is known as DISPERSION. Why? The different colours of light have different wavelengths. Different wavelengths are refracted different amounts. Red light is refracted least. Violet light is refracted the most. Which colour is refracted the most? How do you remember the order of the colours? Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain

Colour : splitting white light up

Until now we have used the title ‘splitting white light up’. However this process has a scientific name. The splitting of white light into a spectrum of colours is called DISPERSION. But why does white light get dispersed? Colour : splitting white light up

Dispersion Each of the colours [ROYGBIV] has a slightly different waveform - what is different? They each have a different wavelength [ ].

Because the different colours of light have different wavelengths they are bent (refracted) by different amounts. But which colour do you think is bent the most? Red light is refracted least because it has a long wavelength. Violet light is refracted the most because it has the shortest wavelength. Dispersion

Colour : joining the colours back together Remember how you dispersed white light to give a spectrum of colours? Now do the opposite to it - you’ll need 2 prisms! A similar effect can also be seen using a colour wheel [or Newton’s disc].

Seeing colours We see objects by light striking an object and then reflecting into our eye. How do we see colour? Why does a red dress look red? Why does a green apple look green? How do we see objects like a book?

Primary Colours Animation

Primary Colours You can make any colour by mixing three colours. Do you know what they are? Red Green Blue The colours labelled in white text are the PRIMARY COLOURS. The colours labelled in blue text are called SECONDARY COLOURS. They can be made by mixing the primary colours Cyan Yellow Magenta

Red objects Why does a red snooker ball look red in white light? Remember white light is made of a spectrum of colours. The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum EXCEPT red, so red light is reflected into our eye. The snooker ball appears red.

Green objects Why does a green snooker ball look green in white light? The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum EXCEPT green, green light is reflected into our eye. The snooker ball appears green.

Black objects Why does a black snooker ball look black in white light? The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum. NO light is reflected into our eye. The snooker ball appears black.

White objects Why does a white snooker ball look white in white light? The snooker ball doesn’t absorb any of the colours of the spectrum. The whole spectrum of light is reflected into our eye. The snooker ball appears white.

Magenta objects Why does a magenta ball look magenta in white light? The ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum EXCEPT red and blue, red and blue light is reflected into our eye. The ball appears to be magenta, a mixture of red and blue light.

Look at the clothes below. What colour light is reflected by these clothes?

What colours are absorbed by this frog’s skin? What colours are reflected into your eyes? This part of the skin absorbs all the colours of the spectrum but reflects red light. This part of the skin absorbs all the colours of the spectrum and none are reflected.

What colours are absorbed by this flower? What colours are reflected into your eyes? This part of the flower absorbs all the colours of the spectrum but reflects yellow (a mixture of red and green) light. This part of the flower absorbs no colours, it reflects them all.

Filters Filters let certain colours of light pass through, but absorb all other colours. Using different coloured filters placed in front of your eye, look around the classroom and see what effect they have on your vision. Object filter

Red, blue and green filters Red filters absorb all colours…. Blue filters absorb all colours…. Green filters absorb all colours…. … apart from red light… apart from blue light … apart from green light

Magenta, cyan and yellow filters Magenta filters absorb all colours…. Cyan filters absorb all colours…. Yellow filters absorb all colours…. … apart from red and blue light … apart from blue and green light … apart from red and green light

But why do colours look different in different coloured light? Lets start with the example of a red ball in red light. The red light shines on the ball. The red ball reflects red light and so appears red.

What about the red ball in green light? The green light shines on the ball. The red ball only reflects red light so it absorbs the green light and reflects nothing. Because it doesn’t reflect any type of light it appears black. So what colour does a green ball appear in blue light? The green ball only reflects green light so it absorbs the red light and reflects nothing. Therefore it appears black.

But what if the filter you are using lets through more than one type of light. For example what will our red ball look like in magenta light. The magenta light shines on the ball. Remember that magenta is a mixture of blue and red light The ball reflects only red light. Therefore it absorbs the blue light and reflects the red light. It will appear to be red.

Over the next two slides you will be shown the a girl. She will be standing in a different coloured light each time. The colour of this light is written at the top of the slide. Your task is to drag the correct shirt and trousers onto the girl to represent what those clothes would look like in this coloured light.

Object (Colour)Colour FilterAppearance red ballred red ballblue blue bookgreen blue bookmagenta green applecyan green applemagenta red and blue tiered black blue green black red and black Complete the table below by adding in the colour that each object would appear to be in the conditions listed.

Homework Suggest what clothes you would wear on a night out, where the lighting on the dance floor was mainly red and green. Draw an outfit you might wear, explaining why you chose those colours.

Flag colours For the flag shown, draw what it will look like in: a) Red light b) Green light c) Blue light Actvity

Multiple Choice Questions

Which of the following is not a light source? A.The Sun B.A star C.Traffic lights D.A book

Which of the following is not seen by reflected light? A.Your hand B.Jupiter C.Light bulb D.The Moon

Which of the following is the most dense? A.Air B.Water C.Glass D.Lead

When light changes direction as it moves from one medium to another we call this effect what? A.Reflection B.Refraction C.Diffraction D.Total internal reflection

If a ray of light moves from a more dense medium to a less dense medium at an angle to the normal what happens? A.It continues with no change of direction B.It bends towards the normal C.It bends away from the normal D.It stops

Which colour has the longest wavelength? A.Blue B.Indigo C.Yellow D.Red

Which colour below is refracted (bent) the least by a glass prism? A.Red B.Orange C.Yellow D.Green

Which of the following is not a primary colour? A.Red B.Blue C.Cyan D.Green

Which two primary colours make magenta? A.Red and cyan B.Red and yellow C.Red and blue D.Blue and violet

If white light passed through a magenta filter and then a blue filter, what colour would emerge? A.Red B.Red and blue C.Blue D.Black

What colour would a red dress look in cyan light? A.Red B.Green C.Blue D.Black

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